Sinks & BasinSinks & basins are used for washing purpose. Sinks are used for washing pots, utensils, vessels, crockery & cutleries & other general purposes. Different materials are used for sinks according to the purpose for which they are intended:
• Heavily galvanized iron for heavy pot wash
• Stainless steel for general purpose.
Basins are used for hand washing purposes. They are used in guestrooms bathrooms, restroom, utility areas etc. They are made of porcelain.
Sinks & basins normally have hot & cold water supply through a faucet. The faucet is connected with the fixture branch by a flexible connecting pipe. The waste water outlet is connected with the drainage either through a waste pipe or bottle trap, which have a screw cap that is removed to clean the clogging if any. The basin is connected in the drain pipe with a filter cockroach trap with a stopper. This does not allow cockroaches to enter the room from the drainage & stopper, is used to fill water in the sink in case of use.
Water Closet, Bidets and FittingsA water closet or flush toilet is a toilet that disposes of the waste products by using water to sweep them away down the drainpipe. The bowl of a flush toilet or water closet is a porcelain vessel with a built- in siphon, usually visible as a curved pipe protruding from the back. Normally the bowl contains a small amount of water, which is enough to form an air trap inside the siphon pipe, preventing foul air escaping from the sewer. When the toilet is used, liquid flows slowly through the siphon pipe as waste matter is added, but the flow volume is too small to fill the siphon. To flush the toilet, the user activates a flushing mechanism, which pours a large quantity of water quickly into the bowl. This creates a flow large enough to fill the siphon tube, causing the bowl to empty rapidly due to the weight of liquid in the tube. The flow stops when the liquid level in the bowl drops below the first bend of the siphon, allowing air to the enter, which breaks the column of liquid.
Flushing cisterns are of two types:1. Plunger type: Plunger lifts when chain or handle is pulled. The flexible rubber covering to the plunger will not allow water to flow down. The water level in the inverted U shaped pipe reaches U bend & it flows to the WC by gravity. This leads to the partial vacuum at the bend & the water flows continuously by the symphonic action till the cistern is empty.
2. Bell type: On pulling the chain the bell inside the system is lifted up, partial vacuum is created at the crown top of the bell which causes water to spill over the top of the entrance. Flush pipe symphonic action starts & water from the cistern enters the bell through the hole as the system starts becoming empty the water level falls, floating ball gets lowered & water starts flowing in the cistern. It takes two minutes to refill if water pressure is optimum.
Flush valve:Flush valve is used to provide more frequent flushes. It is a measuring valve operated by means of knob or level. Closes automatically after a fix amount of water is delivered. This requires high pressure. The flush valve is directly connected to the central water system & pipe diameter is not less than 1.25 inches. No cistern is provided.
Other types of cistern are also there, e.g.
Automatic (urinal) cisterns- Which works whenever it detects that the urinals are in use.
Pressure chamber cisterns-These acts on the principle of compression developed by the water supply in the flush tank which is also a pressure chamber.
Retrofit direct flush cistern-This system a sensor operated system that automatically flushes the fixture when user departs.
The system uses machine vision to track a user approaching the fixture, then it waits until the user departs. A solenoid is used to actuate the flush from a 6 volt battery inside the unit that also powers the vision system.
Drainage system is a gravity flow system & atmospheric air pressure is required for its complete & safe operation.
Water Traps & Seals:Water or sewage drains from a fixture drain through a trap. The trap contains a quantity of waste water that prevents sewer gases from escaping from sewer lines back into building. Thus the water in the trap acts as a hygienic barrier between drain pipe & the user. Wastes flow through the trap because the fixture liquid level is higher than the trap. Connected to the fixture drain pipe is a fixture vent or water seal. The water seal allows air to circulate throughout the drainage system. This simple connection prevents wastes from siphoning from the trap by equalizing air pressure on both sides of the trap; hence, a quantity of water is always retained in the trap.
Waste & soil pipes:The fixture drainpipe discharges into a soil pipe or waste drain pipe. The difference between the two pipes is one of terminology only. The waste pipe can handle everything except human excreta & a soil pipe can handle any building drainage. A single drain pipe can receive the discharge from several fixtures & is positioned at an angle that provides for continuous gravity flow in the system.
The drain pipe deposits waste into a waste stack or a building drain. The stack’s lower pipe is a large, vertical drainage pipe, & its upper portion is a large vent that must extend through the building roofline. The stack discharge into building’s main drain, which eventually collects all building sewage. The building drain deposits sewage into a building sewer at the outside.
The building sewer deposits into a private sewage disposal system e.g. septic tank or sewage treatment plant or into a public sewer line that is located beyond the property boundary line.
Inspection chambers are also known as sewer tanks. They are meant for drain deposits from drainage pipes fitted with the fixtures in the building. This is necessary for proper maintenance of the drainage system.
The septic tank is a large, enclosed sewage holding tank buried in the soil. Sewage flows in while effluent drains from the opposite side into a series connected cesspool. A cesspool is a large pit in the ground lined with concrete.
The lining has openings in underground. Sewage solids are collected in the pit and are eventually decomposed by bacteria contained in the sewage & in the ground. The by products are called effluents. The effluent drains through the openings into the adjacent soil. The immediate area around the underground pit or cesspool, is usually lined with a layer of gravel, a layer of sand & finally of local soil. As effluent passes through these layers of rock & soil, it is further decomposed & eventually processed, reverts to water & re-enters the water table. Solids are retained in the septic tank.
BLOCKAGES & LEAKAGES
In gravity flow drainage system, the basic maintenance requirement is to keep the system open that is the piping clean & free from stoppages. Most maintenance tools are designed so that they can be inserted in piping & remove debris. Plumbers use augers, rods, & snakes. These devices are flexible so that they will not coil within a pipe & will make turns as piping smaller particles so that it can be flushed away, or may be designed to collect matter so that it can be removed from the pipe. Various chemicals may work in traps & short sections of pipe to decompose blocking matter. Many chemical cleaners are only for grease clogging in the pipe.
The major problem in kitchen or food service areas is grease condensation within pipes. This problem is increased in traps & small diameter pipes & is not as serious in larger diameter pipes. Frequently, grease traps are installed on equipment & serve as grease collection points. These traps must be cleaned on a periodic schedule.
Laundries have problem with lint, small cloth articles, & soap, all of which clogs pipes. The above mentioned plumber tools will effectively remove obstruction in the pipes.
Building drains may become clogged with tree roots. These may have to be removed from the pipes periodically by using rooters, which cut off tree roots within the pipe. Chemicals may be used periodically to discourage future growth, or trees have to be removed from the area.
Sufficient & suitable access point should be provided for clearing blockages from drain runs which cannot be reached by any other means. The siting spacing & type of access points will depends on the layout, depth & size of the runs.
CLEARANCE OR BLOCKAGES:
The provisions described below are for normal methods of rodding (which need not be in the direction of flow) and not mechanical means of clearing.
Access point should be one of four types:
a) Rodding eyes: capped extensions of the pipes.
b) Access fittings: small chambers on (or an extension of) the pipes but not with an open channel.
c) Inspection chambers: chambers with working space at ground level.
d) Manholes: deep chambers with working space at drain level.