wine production


RED WINE MANUFACTURING

The concept: transforming the grapes into wine by fermenting their sugar into alcohol. Tranferring the tannins and red pigments from the grape skin into the juice by maceration. Fermenting the juice using the yeast that are naturally present on the grape skin.

1    De-stemming: separating the grapes from the stems and stalks.
    De-stemming separates the grapes from the stems and stalks, which otherwise would impart highly unpleasant grassy flavors to the wine as well as overly bitter tannins. 
2         Crushing: splitting the grape skins.
    Crushing splits the grape skins to facilitate the fermentation process and ensure that the pigments from the skin transfer into the juice, as the pulp itself is colorless.
3         Primary fermentation and maceration
    In this step the must is fermented in an open-air environment. The transformation of sugar into alcohol is rapid, but the temperature must not rise above 32°C (90°F) or the yeasts will die. The fermentation process stops when there is no longer any sugar to transform. Next, a maceration process occurs that varies in length depending on the quantity and style of tannins desired. This will produce a wine that is more or less tannic, concentrated and colored. Adding sulfur dioxide before fermentation ensures that no bacterial infections occur. Winemakers are now using less and less sulfur dioxide, however, as the quality and health of the harvested grapes has improved.
4         Racking and Pressing
    Following maceration in the vat, the wine is separated into two parts. The first, called the free run juice, naturally flows from the bottom of the vat, while the press juice is obtained from pressing the solid matter in the must. The press juice is more deeply colored, tannic and concentrated, but less delicate. It can be reincorporated or left out of the mixture, depending on what type of wine the winemaker wants to obtain.
5         Malolactic fermentation
   Malolactic fermentation, which is effectuated by lactic bacteria, often occurs spontaneously. It transforms the harsher malic acid into lactic acid, which is smoother and rounder. This transformation increases the suppleness of the wine and reduces its aggressiveness. It also stabilizes the wine, as lactic acid is less reactive than malic acid.
6         Blending
    Blending is a magical process performed by the winegrower and winemakers, which involves combining different lots of wine to obtain the optimum end product. The goal is to increase the wine’s complexity and enrich its aromas by using wines made from different varieties. The blends are different for each vintage. Ideally, by blending, the winemaker is able to conjure up a wine that is greater than the sum of its parts.
7         Maturation
    Maturation is an important step in which the elements of a wine combine to make the wine richer, more approachable and sometimes better suited for aging. The process can take place in a vat if the wines will be consumed young, or in barrels to accentuate the wine’s aromas and improve its future bottle aging. This step also helps clarify the wine by eliminating deposits and lees.
8         Bottling
    After maturation, the wine is filtered, then bottled under extremely rigorous sanitary conditions. The corking process must also be very hygienic in order to avoid the contamination that leads to corked wine.

WHITE WINE PRODUCTION

The concept: transforming the grape juice into alcohol after having harvested the grapes and gently pressed them to avoid imparting the pigments from the skin and preserve their delicate aromas.

1         De-stemming: separating the grapes from the stems and stalks.
    De-Stemming separates the grapes from the stems and stalks, which otherwise would impart highly unpleasant grassy flavors to the wine as well as overly bitter tannins.
2         Crushing: splitting the grape skins
     Crushing splits the grape skins to facilitate the fermentation process and ensure that the aromas from the skin transfer into the pulp.
3         Pressing: gently separating the skins from the grape pulp
     This process must be conducted very carefully so as not to extract the vegetal essences of the seeds and preserve the fruitiness of the juice. Overly powerful pressing will also impart a rosy color to the juice.
4         Settling: natural process to precipitate the vegetal residue in the must.
     Settling takes place before fermentation and allows particles suspended in the juice, including plant matter and small pieces of skin to fall to the bottom of the vat. The grape juice is thus partially clarified, and the largest specks of undesirable matter are removed.
5         Primary fermentation
    In this step the juice is fermented in an open-air environment. The transformation of sugar into alcohol happens less quickly than for reds, as it must be conducted at low temperatures (18°C or 64°F), in order to continue to release the grapes’ subtle aromas. Adding sulfur dioxide before fermentation ensures that no bacterial infections occur. However, winemakers are now using less and less sulfur dioxide, as the quality and health of the harvested grapes has improved. For the most powerful white wines, fermentation takes place directly in the barrels.
6         Malolactic fermentation
     Malolactic fermentation, which is effectuated by lactic bacteria, often occurs spontaneously. However, it is only used for white wines that are naturally acidic, such as the whites of northern France. It transforms the harsher malic acid into lactic acid, which is smoother and rounder. This transformation increases the suppleness of the wine and reduces its aggressiveness. It also stabilizes the wine, as lactic acid is less reactive than malic acid.
7         Blending

    Blending is a magical process performed by the winegrower and winemakers, which involves combining different lots of wine to obtain the optimum end product. The goal is to increase the wine’s complexity and enrich its aromas by using wines made from different varieties. The blends are different for each vintage. Ideally, by blending, the winemaker is able to conjure up a wine that is greater than the sum of its parts.
8         Maturation
     Maturation is an important step in which the elements of a wine combine to make the wine richer, more approachable and sometimes better suited for aging. The process can take place in a vat if the wines will be consumed young, or in barrels to accentuate the wine’s aromas and improve its future bottle aging. This step also helps clarify the wine by eliminating deposits and lees.
9         Bottling
    After maturation, the wine is filtered, then bottled under extremely rigorous sanitary conditions. The corking process must also be very hygienic in order to avoid the contamination that leads to corked wine.

SPARKLING WINE PRODUCTION

The concept: Champagnes are produced in two phases. First, a still white wine is produced. Then a second fermentation process is induced by adding a solution that contains yeast and sugar. This fermentation produces carbon dioxide, which forms the carbonation in champagne.

1         Production of a still white wine and blending
     This production is primarily carried out according to the same methods used to create white wines (Chardonnay) and red wines (Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier). However, there are a few differences. Two thirds of the white base wine is created from red grapes; thus, the pressing is very gentle so as not to extract pigments. A strict set of production methods is applied in Champagne. In addition, the base wine may not exceed 11% alcohol, as the second fermentation will add another 2%. Malolactic fermentation is not required, but often used, as the musts tend to be naturally acidic. Next, the blending involves either batches of white wines (white champagnes) or white and red wines (rosé champagnes) from different harvests. Rosé champagne is the only French wine produced by blending red and white wines. Before bottle fermentation begins, the blended wines are stabilized so that there will be no remaining sediment (especially tartaric acid) during the secondary fermentation and maturation processes.
2         Dosage and fermentation processes: second bottle fermentation
     The dry, filtered wines are bottled and a small amount of “bottling dosage” consisting of beet and cane sugars and yeast are added in a specified proportion to produce the correct amount of alcohol. The bottles are sealed and cooled to a temperature of approximately 11°C (52°F). The yeast then ferments the dosage sugars for six to eight weeks, producing a large amount of pressure (6 atmospheres or 88 psi).
3         Sur lie maturation for aromatic complexity
     For fifteen months for a champagne and thirty-six months for a vintage champagne, the maturation process gives the wines their bottle bouquet. The contact with the lees also produces the complex tertiary aromas that are typical of wines from Champagne.
4         Racking: clarification of the wines
     This practice, which is labor intensive, but mostly mechanized these days, involves placing the bottle with its neck sloping downward so that the lees gradually slide toward the cork. A good racker can finish 40,000 bottles per day. Racking continues until the wine is perfectly clear.
5         Disgorging: eliminating the lees before the final bottling
     Disgorging removes the deposit formed in the neck of the bottle during racking. The use of chemical coolants allows this operation to be automated. Each bottle, still sloping downward, is plunged 4 cm into a solution that is held at -22 °C (-8°F). The deposit is then trapped in an ice cube that can easily be removed. Dosage and corking then follow.
6         Dosage and Corking: the final steps of champagne production
     Immediately after disgorgement has been completed, a shipping dosage is determined for the champagne based on how it will be sold, as the amount of cane sugar and aged wine included in the dosage determine the type of champagne that will be produced. With less than 3 grams of sugar, the Champagne will be a “Brut zero”. Between 33 and 50 grams, it will be a “Demi sec”. Between these two extremes, a “Brut”champagne contains between 6 and 15 grams of residual sugar. After dosage, the bottles are corked and then sealed in the distinctive manner that has now been adopted for all sparkling wines. The cork used is always the highest quality available.

ROSE WINE PRODUCTION

The concept: transforming grapes into wine by fermenting their sugars into alcohol. Transferring some of the pigments from the grape skin into the juice, either by a short maceration process or by pressing. Fermenting the juice with the yeasts naturally present on the grape skin, or by adding yeast. There are two ways to make rosés: the saignée method, which uses the same first steps that are used for red wines, or the pressing method, which is closer to the steps of white wine production. In this case, the red grapes naturally release more pigments during pressing.

1         Saignée Method - De-stemming: separating the grapes from the stems and stalks
    De-stemming separates the grapes from the stems and stalks, which otherwise would impart highly unpleasant grassy flavors to the wine as well as overly bitter tannins.
2    Crushing: splitting the grape skins
     Crushing splits the grape skins to facilitate the fermentation process and ensure that the pigments from the skin transfer into the juice, as the pulp itself is colorless.
3         Placing the must in the vat for short maceration
     This step is essentially the same process used to ferment a traditional red wine. However, after only a few hours, the juice has acquired the pigments and has begun to absorb tannins. The solid matter is then separated from the juice and the fermentation continues as it would for a white wine, without further skin contact. The rosé will be more rich and powerful than a white wine, but much less tannic than a red wine.
4         Primary fermentation
    In this step the juice is fermented in an open-air environment. The transformation of sugar into alcohol happens less quickly than for reds, as it must be conducted at low temperatures (18°C or 64°F), in order to continue to release the grapes’ subtle aromas. Adding sulfur dioxide before fermentation ensures that no bacterial infections occur. However, winemakers are now using less and less sulfur dioxide, as the quality and health of the harvested grapes has improved. For the most powerful white wines, fermentation takes place directly in the barrels.
5         Malolactic fermentation
     Malolactic fermentation, which is effectuated by lactic bacteria, often occurs spontaneously. It transforms the harsher malic acid into lactic acid, which is smoother and rounder. This transformation increases the suppleness of the wine suppler and reduces its aggressiveness. It also stabilizes the wine, as lactic acid is less reactive than malic acid. Malolactic fermentation is not always used for rosés, and especially not in southern areas where the grapes are naturally less acidic.
6         Blending
     Blending is a magical process performed by the winegrower and winemakers, which involves combining different batches of wine to obtain the optimum end product. The goal is to increase the wine’s complexity and enrich its aromas by using wines made from different varieties. The blends are different for each vintage. Ideally, by blending the winemaker is able to conjure up a wine that is greater than the sum of its parts.
7         Maturation
    Maturation is an important step in which the elements of a wine combine to make the wine richer, more approachable and sometimes better suited for aging. The process can take place in a vat if the wines will be consumed young, or in barrels to accentuate the wine’s aromas and improve its future bottle aging. This step also helps clarify the wine by eliminating deposits and lees.
8         Bottling
     After maturation, the wine is filtered, then bottled under extremely rigorous sanitary conditions. The corking process must also be very hygienic in order to avoid the contamination that leads to corked wine.

CELLARING

 

Wines are living products containing more than 900 identified substances to date. Many reactions take place in the bottle, some of which are sought-after for the aromas that they create. However, the aging of a wine depends on two factors: first, what is in the bottle, and second, the conditions in which the bottle is kept. In other words, the richer, more powerful, acidic and tannic the wine, the greater aging potential it possesses. Strangely, following this logic, a Gaillac Primeur would age for a much longer time than a Saint Estèphe Grand Cru Classé, which is not what is expected out of a fragrant, approachable nouveau wine..    In addition, dry whites generally age less well than most red wines as they have no tannins, while sweet wines age much longer than most reds due to their aromatic power an their sugar content. As for the second factor of aging, the cellaring of the bottle itself, temperatures higher than 14°C (57°F) speed the aging process. So does direct sunlight, which increases the reactions. But extreme temperatures are the most destructive to wines. Keeping a fine bottle of wine for two years in a kitchen cupboard where the summer temperatures climb to 85 degrees will age it prematurely.

Less than 1 year:
Beaujolais and other AOCs that produce nouveau wines
Nouveau Vins de Pays
1 to 5 years:
Champagne, Alsace, Beaujolais, Jura, Savoie, Provence, Corsica, Languedoc Roussillon
Southwest: Bergerac, Gaillac, Fronton
Loire Valley: Touraine, Anjou, Muscadet sur Lie, Sancerre
AOC Sparkling wines: Crémants, Blanquette, Clairette de Die
Regional Appellations of Burgundy: Macon, Burgundy, Hautes Côtes de Nuits
Regional Appellations of Bordeaux: Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieurs, dry Bordeaux Blancs
Regional Appellations of the Rhone Valley: Côtes du Rhône, Côtes du Rhône-Villages, Rosé de Tavel
Up to 10 years:
Communal Appellations of Burgundy, whites and reds: Chablis, Pouilly Fuissé, Gevrey Chambertin, Beaune, Volnay,
Bordeaux. Regional Appellations of the Left Bank: Médoc and Haut Médoc, Graves
Communal Appellations of Bordeaux: Saint Emilion, Pomerol,
Rhône Valley: Communal Appellations
Languedoc-Roussillon: Vins Doux Naturels, Maury, Banyuls, Muscat de Rivesaltes
Loire Valley. Touraine reds: Chinon, Bourgueil
Up to 20 years :
Burgundy: Premiers Crus and Grands Crus
Rhone Valley: Red Crus - Côte Rôtie, Hermitage, Cornas, Chateauneuf du Pape, Gigondas
Bordeaux: Communal Appellations of Médoc and Graves: Pessac-Léognan, Margaux, Pauillac, Moulis. Grands Crus, Crus Bourgeois.
Loire Valley: Off-dry and sweet whites: Côteaux du Layon, Bonnezeaux
Over 20 years :

Jura: Vin Jaune and Vins de Paille
Languedoc-Roussillon: Banyuls Grand Cru
Southwest: Sweet wines: Jurançon, Monbazillac, Pacherenc
Bordeaux: Sweet wines: Sauternes, Barsac, Loupiac, and also some Grands Crus from Médoc and Graves

vintage in france

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

gueridon service

parts of bar

types of buffet