It is naturally grown in many countries of the tropical and sub-tropical belt in South and Central America and Asia. It grows in different altitude in different climate and in different soil and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world.
Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world, Columbia is second, The Ivory Coast third and Indonesia fourth.
History of coffee
There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1000 years ago in Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been Yemen district of Arabia in the 15thcentury.The first coffee house was opened in England in Oxford in 1650.
Coffee plant
The coffee trees are the genus coffea which belongs to the Rubiacea family. The coffee plant is an evergreen plant or a bush which is grown commercially in tropical climate throughout the world. It requires not only a hot climate but also a high rainfall, a rich soil and a relatively high altitude. The coffee plant is unable to survive wide variation of temperature or any other condition.

coffee seed

types of coffee plants are

1. Coffea Arabica- it is one of the best quality coffees. Its beans are uniform, bold, regular sized and have good flavor. It is grown in india, brazil, Colombia, coata rica, Kenya and Jamaica.
2. Coffea Canephora-(coffee robusta) it is the second best type of coffee. The beans from the plant are usually smaller of a lower quality with neutral flavor. It gives higher yield than Arabica. It is grown in east and west Africa.
3. Coffea Liberica- produces third main type of coffee. The beans are arge in size but lack in quality. It is grown in Malaysia and Guyana.

Processing of coffee-

 there are two types of coffee processing depending on the country in which processing is carried out, those countries which has abundant water uses wet method of processing coffee beans and those who have scarcity of water uses dry method of coffee processing.
Wet method of coffee processing

Dry method of processing coffee
wet method of coffee processing


Green coffee should be roasted to release aroma. The degree of roasting depends on the style of coffee to be prepared. The blended green coffee beans are heated in a rotating horizontal drum to prevent uneven roasting and scorching. The common temperatures for roasting are
Light: roasting at 193 degree Celsius for light colour. This degree of roasting preserves the delicate aroma of coffee.
medium: roasting at 205 degree Celsius for light colour. Gives a stronger flavor than light roasting.
Full or dark: roasting at 218 degree Celsius for dark colour. It it gives a bitter flavor.
Coffee roasted beyond this temperature 218 degree Celsius makes coffee very bitter and much of the original taste of coffee will be lost.
After roasting, the beans are ground to varying grades (texture) according to the type of coffee to be made. The ground coffee should either be vaccum packed or sealed in airtight containers until required. Ground coffee loses its flavor within a week if it is not packed properly.
‘Caffeine’ an alkaloid present in the coffee, acts as a stimulant.
Coffee is mainly made in the still room of the kitchen. In some places, coffee is made in the restaurant to add a visual appeal for the guest.


Roasted coffee must be ground before it can be used to make the brew. Coffee is grounded to different grades of fineness which suit the many different methods of brewing. The most suitable grinds for some common methods of brewing coffee are-
 Method                        Grounding Grade
Filter                             fine to medium
Jug                                 Coarse
Turkish                          pulverized
Cafeteria                       Medium
Vacuum Infusion          Medium fine to fine
Espresso                       Very fine
Percolation                   Medium

Coffee brewing methods

Instant method   As the name suggests, it is the quickest and easiest method of making coffee in this method, the soluble coffee solids are easily mixed with hot water. It can be made just before it is served by pouring freshly boiled water over the measured instant coffee powder. The coffee dissolves instantly, it can be served with milk. Sugar is offered separately. This method is suitable for making coffee in small and large quantities. Regular and decaffeinated styles are available.

Saucepan or jug method- This method can be adopted for the preparation of small and large quantity of coffee. A measured quantity of coarsely ground coffee is placed in a saucepan or jug, and freshly boiled water is poured over it and covered with a lid. it is allowed to infuse for few minutes and then strained, it is served with hot or cold milk. Sugar is offered separately.

La cafetiere method (plunger) This method is simple and most suitable for making small quantity. The cafetiere equipment has a glass container with a lip and a lid with a plunger unit. The lid holds the plunger in a position. In this method, measured quantity of medium coffee grind is placed and freshly boiled water added to the coffee. It is then stirred and covered with the lid and plunger unit and allowed to infuse. During this time the coffee grains will rise to the top of the liquid. After this, if the plunger is moved slightly, the coffee grains will fall to the bottom of the container. The plunger unit is pushed down the glass container before serving. The infusion time is normally 3-5 minutes which depends on the temperature of water. It is served with or without milk. Sugar is offered separately.
coffee plunger

Percolator method The percolator consists of a pot with a small chamber at its bottom, close to a heat source. A vertical tube connects the bottom chamber with top of the percolator where a measured quantity of coarse ground coffee is placed on the filter. Water is poured there up to water mark level into the chamber near the heat source. When the equipment is switched on, water heats up steadily and starts boiling. Hot water rises through the pipe, infuses the ground coffee, seeps through the filter and drips to the bottom chamber and gets mixed with water in it. The hot water with coffee in the bottom chamber continues to rise up and infuse the coffee on the filter and the cycle continues.
As the brew continuously seeps through ground coffee, the overall temperature of the liquid reaches boiling point. At this stage, the percolator automatically stops and the coffee is ready to use. When this infusion time has been completed, the coffee liquid no longer infuses with the coffee ground but is held in the main body of the percolator at a serving temperature of 82°C (180°F). This method is now rarely used and is fading away.
coffee perccolator

Vacuum infusion method (cona) This method of making coffee is also termed as 'cona' coffee. The cona machine has two bowls, one set over the other and a filter piece made of metal or plastic and a tube connecting two bowls. The bowls are made of either glass or metal. The upper bowl is usually made of glass.
In this method of making coffee, the lower bowl is filled with hot water to the level marked. The upper bowl is then set over the lower bowl properly. The filter is then placed in the upper bowl, ensuring it is placed correctly. The measured quantity of ground coffee is then added to the upper bowl according to the quantity of water taken. The machine is then switched on.
The water in the lower bowl reaches boiling point and it rises up the tube into upper bowl and mixes with the ground coffee. At this stage it is important to stir the mixture gently with a spoon to ensure all the grounds infuse with the liquid and cap formation is prevented.
On reducing the heat, the coffee liquid passes back into the lower bowl the spent coffee grounds in the upper  bowl. The upper bowl and filter are then washed and kept ready for reuse. The coffee in the lower bowl is ready for use. It should be served at approximately 82°C. This method takes 7 minutes approximately. This method is suitable when coffee is made fresh in small quantities. Most coffee shops have cona equipment.

Filter method This is the traditional method of making coffee. In South India, especially in Tamil Nadu, every house has a small coffee filter to make excellent filter coffee. Filter coffee can be made in individual cups or in bulk. The coffee filter equipment has two pieces of containers with the filter unit (perforated plate) in between. The equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed with hot water. The containers and filter must be properly positioned. Freshly ground coffee is measured and placed in the filter which is at the bottom of the top container and freshly boiled water is poured in the top container. Infusion takes place and the coffee liquid falls into the lower container. Filter papers may also be used to avoid passage of the ground coffee to the lower container but this will depend on the type of coffee grind used. The coffee is held in the bottom container and served with milk. This method takes 10 minutes approximately. This method is used in function catering. Coffee filter equipment for function catering is available on hire.
Electronic units are also available for this purpose. Cold water is poured into a container and brought to boiling point and then dripped onto the ground coffee. This method produces excellent coffee.
filter coffee

'Pour through filter method This method is suitable in commercial operations. Most coffee houses and popular restaurants use electric filter coffee machine to make coffee. Before the filter machine is used, one should ensure that the filter is thoroughly cleaned/ new filter paper is placed. Freshly drawn water is poured to the level indicated on the jar. Fresh ground coffee, which normally comes in vacant sealed packet sufficient for a single brew, is added when the machine is switched on. The hot water infuses with the coffee powder and filters into the serving container. It takes approximately 3 minutes for each brew.
There are many designs of coffee filter machine with different outputs available in the market and the operator can choose according to his requirements.

Individual filter method This is a convenient and an economical method of making one cup of filter coffee. Individual filter is a plastic, disposable unit, bought with the required amount of coffee already sealed in the base of the filter. Each individual filter is sufficient for one cup and the whole filter is thrown away after single use. The advantage of this method is that every cup may be made fresh to order. It satisfies customers as they receive absolutely fresh coffee.
When making a cup of coffee by this method, an individual filter is placed in a cup. Freshly boiled water is then poured into the individual filter to the required level. The liquid then infuses with the ground coffee and drips into the cup. A lid should be placed over the water in the filter to help retain the temperature. Time of making is approximately 3-4 minutes.
Still set   Still set consists of
Water boilers, milk heaters, and coffee filters set up in a still room or coffee making area. Measured quantity of coffee grind is placed in the filter unit of a container and the heated water from the boiler is directed to the coffee grind and allowed to infuse. The infused coffee drips down the container and is held at right temperature till required. Coffee is made with or without the addition of milk, which is kept warm in the double jacket milk container.
individual filter method 

Espresso method An espresso machine is used to make this type of coffee. Hot steam is passed through very fine ground coffee and is allowed to infuse under pressure. It makes excellent coffee quickly in individual cups. This method of making coffee is quicker compared to any other method and individual cup of coffee are made in seconds. Some machines have capacity of making 300-400 cups of coffee/ hour. This method is  originated in Italy.
If the coffee is served black, it is called expresso. It is served in a small cup.if piping hot milk is added to the  black coffee, the expresso becomes cappucino. The operator must follow the manufacturer’s instruction.
espresso machine

Turkish or Egyptian method In this method, water is boiled with sugar in a special copper pot having long handle. The finely ground coffee is added and stirred and the grounds allowed to settle before serving.
turkish coffee set
The copper pot is placed on a stove with required quantity of water and allowed to boil with sugar. The finely ground heavily roasted mocha beans are stirred in (one heaped teaspoon coffee powder per person) and taken off from the stove allowing the grounds to settle. It is again brought to boil and allowed to settle and then sprinkled with a little cold water to settle the grounds completely and then covered with lid. It is served in small cups. It may be flavoured with vanilla pod or cardamom while preparing.
Though there are many methods of making coffee, a food service outlet may use any one or a few methods. Instant, filter, plunger, cona, and espresso methods are popular.
The most popular method of making coffee in coffee parlors is espresso coffee. Other styles of coffee frequently requested are

Long black: Coffee served without milk in a large cup
Cafe noir: Coffee served without milk Topped with thickened cream
Decaffeinated coffee: Coffee without the stimulant 'caffeine'. Hag and Sanka are popular brands of decaffeinated coffee
Liqueur coffee: Coffee served with spirit or liqueur. Irish coffee is one example
CAPPUCCINO-Usually equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and frothed milk, often with cinnamon or flaked chocolate sprinkled on top
CAFÉ LATTE- Essentially, a single shot of espresso in steamed (not frothed) milk. The ratio of milk to coffee should be about 3:1

FAULTS  in coffee

During the preparation of coffee, it may result in bitter, weak, and flat coffee for the reasons mentioned below.
Bitter coffee:   Coffee tastes bitter if —
•    The quantity of coffee grind used is more than required
•    Infusion temperature is too high and preparation time too long.
•    There are sediments in the coffee making equipment.
Weak Coffee: coffee is weak and lacks taste if-
•    Insufficient quantity of coffee grind is used
•    Incorrect coffee grind is used
•    Water has not reached the right temperature
•    Infusion temperature is low and the preparation time is too short
•    Poorly stored or old coffee is used
Flat coffee: Coffee becomes flat if-
•    All points mentioned for weak coffee are present
•    It is prepared beforehand and left in the container for long time
•    It is prepared and stored in dirty equipment
•    It is reheated


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