menu examples & accompaniments

1. Beignets or fritters: deep fried tidbits either coated with batter, crumbs or just dusted with seasoned flour eg. finger fish, potatoes, fried prawn, mushroom fritters.
Croquette or Rissoles soft items that can not be fried easily, cheese, eggs, asparagus vegetables, chicken are chopped and bound with potatoes dipped in egg and bread crumbs given a cork shape and deep fried, served with tangy sharp sauces e.g. egg croquette, paneer croquette, corn croquette, cashewnut croquette etc.

2. Patties or Bouchees. Puff or flaky pastry stuffed with savoury items e.g. chicken patty, mushroom patty, vol au vent.

3. Brochette or skewers. Kababs or shaslik made out of chicken, mutton, fish or pork (boneless) cooked on open spit fire or sigri with basting of fat or butter. Burnt, smoky flavour permeates all around brings saliva in mouth, best appetizer in an Indian meal.

4. Quenelles or Dumplings e.g. Chinese momo steamed or fried, samosa, ravioli, wonton are
made of refined flour with assorted stuffings like chicken, pork, potatoes etc. These are also called kromesquis.

5. Barquettes Boat shaped short crust or crunchy pastry stuffed with variety of savoury items, gratinated.

6. Savoury Souffle. Cheese, almond, cashewnuts finely grated creamed with yolk of an egg and white beaten to a stiff point folded and put into Pyrex mould, baked at high temperature, bloats to three times its original size, floats when moved, served quickly from the same bowl.

7. corn on the cob, served boiled with beurre noisette.

1) salads
these are further subdivided into simple and compound
a) Simple salads, raw vegetables and fruits individually or in combination mildly dressed with oil, vinegar combinations, or lemon juice, yoghurt cream, mayonnaise, acidulated
cream, simple salads are called salade simple in French.

i) Green salad (Salade de Crudites) combination of onion, tomato, cucumber, lettuce and red carrots etc.
ii) Kachumbar Chopped onions, carrots, tomatoes, radish, cucumber etc with lemon juice and seasoning is of Indian origin.
iii) Mixed fruit salad. Pineapple, papaya, apple, chikoo (mud apple), grapes cut into cubes with honey, cream and lemon dressing, garnished with, cherry.
iv) Beet root salad (Salade de Betterave). Cubes of beet root, chopped onions with
vinaigrette dressing.
v) Cole slaw. Shredded cabbage with juliennes of capsicum, carrots with trench dressing or creamed mayonnaise.
vi) Sauer Kraut (German). Fermented cabbage.
vii) Relishes. A large number of Italian vegetables are converted into paste preserved as sour sauce, so also large number of cut vegetables pickled in oil vinegar or brine (salted water).
viii) Egg Mayonnaise (Oeuf dur Mayonnaise). Sliced, halved or quartered .egg masked with mayonnaise and sprinkled with cayenne pepper or chopped parsley.
ix) Olives served in pickled form may be Spanish or French, stuffed with red pimentoe/capers/anchovy.
x)  Pasta. Boiled pasta, served cold dressed with napolitaine sauce,
xi)   Tsuke Mono. Japanese pickled vegetables.
xii)  Fonds d' Artichauts. canned quartered artichokes in vinaigrette dressing.

b) Compound salads (Salades Compose' es) The following coloured vegetables like red cabbage, carrots, spinach, kiwis, sarda (afghani melon), avocado pear, celery, lettuce, parsley, leeks, coriander, artichoke, asparagus, broccoli etc are mixed with various cooked and uncooked items meat, fish, poultry and cheese, tofu, soya chunks, rice dumplings, eggs, Italian pasta mixed and served in a bowl or on cold halfplate. Examples of compound salads are as follows:

i)salade alexis-Juliennes of celery, chopped nuts, arranged on cos lettuce with french dressing.
ii) salade allemande-Half apples, half potatoes, dice of gherkins, fillet of herrings, onions and chopped parsley, egg, with vinaigrette dressing, decorate with beetroot.
iii) Salade Astoria. Grape fruit and orange segments, sliced pear, red and green
pepper on cos lettuce with French dressing.
iv) Salade Creole. Scooped melon stuffed with a mixture of dices of melon, rice, salt and ginger bound with acidulated cream.
v) Salade Dalila. Bananas, apples, juliennes of celery bound with mayonnaise.
vi) Salade Delmonico, Diced celeriac, apple in cream dressing on a bed of lettuce.
vii) Salade Favorite. Crayfish tails, slices of white truffles, asparagus tips seasoned
with lemon juice, olive oil, salt and pepper, celery and chopped parsley.
Salade Gauhise. Truffles, potatoes, celery and mushrooms bound with
viii) Salade Florida. Lettuce and quarters of oranges dressed in acidulated cream.
ix) Salade Hongroise. Juliennes of cabbage, partly boiled bacon, potatoes, lemon
juice, oil and scraped horseradish,
x) Salade Indienne. Rico, asparagus tips, juliennes of sweet pimentos, dices of apple
with curry cream.
xi)  Salade Japonaise, Dice of tomatoes seasoned with sugar, salt and lemon juice; dices of pineapple soaked in lomon and orange juice with orange segments dressed
arranged on lettuce leaves with acidulated cream.
xii) Salade Lorette, Corn salad, celery and beetroot with vinaigrette dressing.
xiii) Salade Marie Stuart Juliennes of celery, lettuce, vinaigrette decorated with eggs
and truffles.
xiv)  Salade Mimosa. Half lettuce hearts, quarters of oranges, grapes, bananas with cream and lemon juice.
xv) Caesar Salad, Salad of cos or romaine lettuce with vinaigrette dressing or
mayonaisse along with garlic, croutons and grated parmesan cheese.

Canapes are small colorful tidbits, spread on tray before a meal or at a cocktail party. These could be served cold or hot, just a mouthful taken as finger food. They can also be taken in entree course, in larger quantities as well in savoury course and often they form part of snacks with evening tea. They are also sold in dozens packed in boxes to be taken anywhere, anytime. There are so many possibilities or probabilities that defining them or categorizing is meaningless and every day new inventions, creativities are there, permutation and combinations are infinite. However some very common and popular ones can be summarized as follows:
a). Anchovies on Toast (Canapes aux Anchois). Bread decorated with fillet of anchovies, mask or spread with Anchovy butter.
b) Angels on horseback (Anges Au Cheval,). Three or four oysters rolled in bacon and grilled, garnish with chopped parsley and served with noisette butter.
c) Canape' Bayonne. chopped smoked ham with cayenne pepper, lemon juice, butter ere; topped on bread, masked with mornay and gratinated under salamander.
d) Canape Charlemagne. Shrimps in curry sauce on a crouton.
e) Canape Diana Seasoned chicken liver rolled in bacon and grilled.
f) Canape Gibier. Toast masked with cayenne butter, spread on top game puree.
g) Devils on horseback (Diables noir). Chicken liver seasoned with cayenne pepper or prunes
stuffed with chutney rolled in bacon, grilled served with noisette butter.
h) Mushrooms on Toast (Canape Duxelle). Grilled mushrooms on toast, finished with a dash
of noisette butter.
i) Scotch Woodcock. It is also called canape ecossaise scrambled egg on toast decorated with criss crossed juliennes of anchovy and capers.
j) Welsh Rarebit. Cheddar cheese with salt, pepper and Worcester sauce with liaison of egg
 yolk, beer or yeast, flashed under grill to glaze.
k) buck Rarebit Welsh. Rarebit topped with poached egg.

a) Avocado Pear. Exotic, subtropical, pear-shaped fruit with a thiney green skin The pulp should be soft and buttery. Unripe it is woody and tasteless. It has a nutty flavour, is slightly bland therefore should be served dressed or combined with other food. The dressing used can be thousand Island, lemon, French. mayonnaise, cream etc. It is served on bed of lettuce leaves with quarters of tomatoes, lemon wedges to make it look colourful.

Avocado Cocktail. Avocado combined with cantaloup melon or honeydew balls with lemon
juice and ginger sugar, served in a cocktail glass decorated with cherry on top.

b) Grapefruit (Pamplemousse). Grapefruit is a type of citrus fruit which generally appears on breakfast menu or as starter. It is cut into half served in and out of its skin and in segments as cocktail. It is served in a grapefruit cup with half plate underliner and grape fruit spoon which has serrated edges. Accompaniment of grapefruit is castor sugar and garnish cherry.

c) Melon types of melon which can be served as a starter are:
Cantaloups have ridged, rough light yellow to greenish skin and soft fragrant mellow Honey dews have firm, shiny and wrinkled skin, bright green or yellow with a sweet refreshing pulp
Water melon has firm green skin, red pulp with black seeds embedded in pulp.

Melons are cut into small portions, their seeds removed, served chilled alongwith castor sugar and ground ginger. These days even commercial ginger sugar is available.
Melon Ball Cocktail. Balls of melon scooped out with a parisienne cutter, sprinkled with sugar and ground ginger, garnished with cherry, served chilled in a stemmed glassware with quarter plate and doiley paper underliner, cutlery provided is tea spoon.

d) passion fruit- a large round shape orange coloured fruit with a close soft texture, sweet to taste, originally a japanese fruit.

e) papaya- a subtropical fruit, it has greenish yellow skin. it is cut into half, served like melon. accompaniments are castor sugar and lemon wedge, garnish is cherry.

some other varieties of hors d'oeuvre
1) anchois aux poivrons- half pimentos, half anchovy fillet decorated to taste
2) artichaut a la grecque- parboiled artichoke with wine, oil, fennel, coriander seeds, pepper corn, thyme, bayleaf, seasoning and lemon juice, drained, served chilled.
3) concombres danoise- boat shaped or barquette of cucumber stuffed with salpicon of smoked salmon, herrings, hard boiled egg, topped with grated horsradish.
4) Frivolites Hors d' oeuvre- composed  of baruettes, tartlets and moulded cream
5) Haricot verts Diamonds of French beans parboiled seasoned with oil and vinegar sprinkled
with chervil and chives.
6) Mortadcllc- Cheese, smoked salmon, cucumber ham etc cut very thin and rolled
7) Cornets D' york- Ham cut into thin slices and shaped like triangles, rolled into cones garnished with butter cream or aspic.
8) Comets of york ham mogador- Cornets of thinly cut lean ham filled with ham mousse, puree
of prunes, masked with sherry flavoured aspic.
9) Oeuf farcis et garnis- Hard boiled egg stuffed and garnished to taste.
10) American relishes- various kinds of fruits, onions, gherkins prepared with vinegar, seasoned with sugar, cinnamon and cayenne.
11) Salami de gotha- Salami cut into thin slices, dished out like a crown.
12) Tomates a la monegasque- Tomatoes without pulp stuffed with tuna fish, hard boiled egg,
onion, parsley, chervil, chopped tarragon which is bound with mayonnaise
13) Polish Hors d'oeuvre (Hors d' ceuvre Polonaise)- It is a smaller version of Scandinavian open sandwich of brown, pumpernickle or granary bread topped with anchovy fillet, duck or game with cayenne pepper, breast of chicken, roast beef with grated horseradish jlaviar, scrambled egg, cheese, pates, sardines, ham etc any of above ingredients decorated with capers, gherkins, truffles, coloured butter, sieved yolk etc.

Consomme has hundreds of names related to its ultimate garnish. Some of the most common consommes are
1. Consomme africaine- Chicken consomme flavoured with curry powder garnished with boiled rice, chicken quenelles flavoured with curry powder,
2. Consomme alexandra- Consomme with tapioca, garnished with juliennes of chicken, quenelles and shredded lettuce,
3. Consomme andalouse- Consomme flavoured with tomato puree garnished with boiled rice, vermicelli, threaded egg, dices of tomatoes and juliennes of ham.
4  Consomme belle fermiere- Consomme garnished with juliennes of cabbage, diced french beans and small pasta.
5. CaasxHrune bretonne- Consomme garnished with juliennes of leeks, celery, onions, mushrooms and shredded chervil.
6. Consornme brunoise- Consomme garnished with small cubes of carrots, leeks, celery, turnips, peas and chervil.
7. Consomme carmen- Consomme garnished with juliennes of capsicum, tomato and shredded chervil and boiled rice
8. Consomme Caroline- Consomme garnished with juliennes of chicken and boiled rice.
9. Consomme celestine- Consomme garnished with juliennes of fine herbs and truffles pancakes or pannequets.
11. Consomme colbert- Consomme garnished with printanier of vegetables and small poached egg.
12. Cossomme crecy- consomme garnished wuh cubes of-carrots and royale custard cubes.
13. consomme doria- chicken consomme garnished with chicken quenelles and cooked cucumber pellets.
14. consomme dubarry- consomme thickened with tapioca, garnished with small bouquets of
cauliflower and shredded chervil
15.  Consomme favorite- Consomme thickened with tapioca garnished with juliennes of artichoke bottoms and mushrooms, chervil shreds and potato balls.
16. Consomme indienne- Consomme flavoured with curry powder garnished with boiled rice and coconut royale.
17. Consomme italienne- consomme garnished with dices of tomato royal, spinach royal, coloured pasta and grated cheese.
18. Consomme Jacobine- Consomme garnished with dices of potatoes, french beans, turnips, peas, juliennes of truffles.
19. consomme julienne- Consomme garnished with juliennes of vegetables.
20. Consomme xavier- Consomme garnished with threaded egg.

a) Petite Marmite- Strong consomme made of beef and chicken garnished with shaped turnips, juliennes of celery, cabbage and carrots, roundels of marrow, dices of beef and chicken. Special earthenware pot called marmite which is a cook-and-serve dish is used.accompaniment is thin grilled flutes, poached bone marrow and parmesan cheese. sometimes the bread and cheese are done as a croute on top of the soup before serving at the table.

b) Queue de. boeuf (ox tail's Soup)- Consomme made of ox tail cut into sections, light brown garnished with carrots, turnips and dices of oxtails, served with a glass of Madeira wine. It is a native of America.

c) consomme renaissance- chicken consomme garnished with vegetable ball, royal custard and shredded chervil.

d) Riso a fegatini- Chicken consomme garnished with boiled rice and small cubes of chicken liver and topped with grated parmesan cheese.

d) Vatel- Fish Consomme with sole fume garnished with roundels of cray fish and fillet of sole.

e) Vlveurs- Duck consomme flavoured with celery, beetroot juice, cayenne pepper garnished with juliennes of celery, paprika.

f) Consomme aux vin- White wine charged consomme,

g) Golle de volaille- Chicken flavoured cold consomme with dices of tomatoes.

Thick soups are classified into two broad heads Passed and Unpassed.
Unpassed are Potage and Broth. Passed are ones winch are passed through strainer to extract pulp and juice. If this no trace of original meat or vegetable Is visible except may be colour.Passed are further subdividsed into

thick soups
It is an extract of such vegetables which has thick pulp obtained after cooking wiuch is ultimately finished with butter or cream. Soup prepared from lentils, potatoes, peas.
a).Puree bretonne- Puree of haricot beans and onions finished with cream,
b).Puree garbure- Puree of root vegetables and cabbage cooked with milk, garnished
with croutons.
c).Puree gentilhomme- Puree of game and ham with madeira flavoured cream, garnished
with juliennes of ham, mushroom and sausage, served with sippets,
d). Puree solferino- Puree of tomato and potato soup garnished with carrot balls and

Such vegetables which do not provide sufficient bulk or body to soup are mildly thickened with rice, cornflour, bechamel or any other starch and finished with cream are Creme soups.
a) Creme de Champignons. Cream of mushrooms, garnished with sliced mushroom, cream and chopped parsley
b)Creme Clamart. Green peas soup garnished with whole peas, croutons are passed separately.
c)Creme Longchamps. Green peas soup garnished with vermicelli and chervil pluches.
d)Creme Crecy. Puree of carrots with rice garnished with carrots, cream and croutons.
e)Creme de Volaille Princess. Puree of chicken with bechamel garnished with juliennes
of chicken, cream and asparagus tips
f)Creme de Tomate. Puree of tomatoes with bechamel, finished with cream, garnished
with croutons.
g)Creme de Celeri. Puree of celery with potatoes puree finished with cream.
h)Creme Juanita. Tomato soup garnished with chicken or veal quenelles
i)creme potiron. puree of pumpkins with bechamel, finished with cream, served with croutons.

such soups which are very much aqueous in nature and require lot of thickening either with starch paste or egg yolk are called veloute, which are not boiled afterwards, e.g. chicken veloute, fish veloute, mushroom veloute. These may be finished with cream before service.
a)Veloute Doria. Veloute of cucumber with cream and egg yolk liaison, garnished with pellets of cucumber.
b)Veloute Borley. Fish veloute with liaison of egg yolk and cream garnished with quenelles offish and mussels/
c)Veloute Chevreuse. Chicken veloute garnished with juliennes of truffles, and chicken
and cream.
d)Veloute Comtesse. Asparagus veloute garnished with shredded sorrel, white asparagus
heads and cream.
e)Veloute Dame Blanche. Chicken veloute garnished with dices of chicken and cream

An aromatic vegetables, seafood like lobsters or prawns are cooked with white wine and fish stock finished with egg yolk and cream are called Bisque
a)Bisqu e d' Hornard. mirepoix of vegetables tossed in butter with lobsters, pepper corn moistened with white wine, fish stock, consomme and burnt brandy, tomatoes and rice, cooked, passed through sieve after pounding in mortar, finished with saffron flavoured milk, butter and cream, garnished with lobsters.
b)Bisque de Crevettes. Same as lobster bisque except shrimps are used instead of lobster, garnished with shrimps.
c)Bisque d' Ecrevisses. Crayfish bisque
d)Bisque de Crabes. Crabs bisque.

It is of American origin prepared from mussels, clams flavoured with leeks and thickened with potatoes finished with butter served with breakfast biscuits.
a) Clam Chowder. American seafood soup of clams made from chopped onions fried in pork fat, tomatoes, potatoes, parsley, clams, juice of clams, pepper, thyme, moistened with water thickened with crushed biscuits.

international soups
1) Batwinia(russia). puree of spinach, sorrel, beetroot leaves, shallots and white wine garnished with cherviland terragon and rice.
2) Bortsch (Russia) famous. Russian soup meal in itself, heavily garnished. Chicken consomme flavoured with duck fumet cabbage, carrots, leeks, turnips, celery and beet-root. Soup gets its characteristic rich red colour due to beet-root. Bortsch is accompanied by sour cream , (Smetana), beetroot juice and small pies stuffed with duck forced meat.
3) Clam chowder (America) American seafood soup of clams made from chopped onions fried in pork fat, tomatoes, potatoes, parsley, clams, juice of clams, pepper, thyme moistened with water thickened with crushed biscuits, served with breakfast biscuits.
4) Cock-a-leekie (Scotland) Chicken consomme garnished with dices of beef, chicken, shredded leeks, prunes and rice.
5) Soupe a r oignon. (French onion soup) (France) Consomme garnished with fried onions and
gratinated melba toast topped with parmesan cheese.
6) Minestrone (Italy) Well known Italian soup made from cubed turnip, carrot, parsnip, celery, cabbage, leeks, peas, french beans, spaghetti, tomatoes, rice, onions, garlic, basil, parsley, seasoning cooked in stock finished with pesto (a mixture of olive oil, garlic, basil and parmesan
cheese) served with toasted flutes.
7) Oyster stew (America) Sophisticated American soup prepared from butter, milk, cayenne
pepper, nutmeg, lemon juice and oysters, served with crushed breakfast biscuits.
8) Petite marmite (France). A complete soup, a French specialty. Beef and chicken consomme with bouquet garni, celery, leek, bone marrow, carrot, turnip cabbage ete, served in earthenware, pot called marmite with dry thin toast.
9) Poule au pot (France). Originated by Henry IV of France who decreed all his people should have poule an pot for their Sunday dinner. It literally means chicken in the pot. It is prepared with whole chicken in pot with root vegetables served in similar way as petite marmite.
10) Mulligatawny (India). One of many Indian preparations incorporated into British cookery
there are several versions of the Mulligatawny.
    a)French style. Chopped onions and apples fried in butter with tomato puree curry flavour moistened with chicken consomme, cream, garnished with dices of chicken and rice.
    b)Mulligatawny non-veg Indian style. Broiled pepper com, cumin seeds, fenugreek, onion seeds, aniseeds and coriander seeds powder along with ginger, garlic, bay leaf and tomatoes, mutton stock and coconut milk, cooked, passed through strainer, garnished with sliced brown
onions, dices of mutton, boiled rice and lemon wedge.
    c)Lentil mulligatawny Indian style (Vegetarian). Prepared in the same way as non-veg
mulligatawny Indian style except instead of mutton stock lentils are added.
11) Scotch broth or mutton broth (England). Mutton stock with pearl barley, garnished with
brunoise of vegetables, dices of boiled mutton and chopped parsley.
12) Trutle soup (Tortue clair) (England). British fare specialty prepared from turtle, infusion of herbs and stock flavoured with sherry or madeira garnished with cubes of turtle meat served in consomme cup accompanied with brown bread and butter, lemon wedges and on special occasions milk punch is offered.
13) Gazpacho (Spain) Cold Spanish soup made from uncooked ingredients like cucumber, tomatoes, onions, green pepper, garlic, oil, seasoning, vinegar or lemon juice passed in liquidizer, served iced, garnished with diced cucumber, chopped parsley and croutons.
14) Sharks fin (China) Chinese rich cream soup prepared from diced shark fin.
15) Vichyssoise (Spain) It was created by Louis Diat in 1917. Originally served iced, can be served hot as well It is well creamed potatoes and leeks soup garnished with chopped
16) Windsor (England) Thick brown soup created by Royal chef Charles Elme Francatelli. Cream of rice Veloute made with calves feet, turtle, herbs and Madeira, thickened with egg yolk and cream, garnished with juliennes of calves feet and chicken quenelles. I
17) Potage madras (India) Coconut flavoured tomato soup with coconut milk.


shallow fried fish
(a) Poisson Meuniere: Fillets of sole, plaice, trout, cod, turbot, herring may be cooked. Fillet passed through seasoned flour, shallow fried, finish with noisette butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley.
(Noisette Butter-Butter heated till it attains nut brown colour)
(b) Filet de Sole Meuniere a l 'Andalouse: Fillet of sole cooked meuniere style, served garnished with half tomatoes filled with capsicum pilaf, then tomatoes are tossed in 9butter, Aubergine roundels batter fried decorated alternately on top of fish.
(c) Poisson Doree: Fillet of fish cooked in meuniere style masked with tomato flavoured with bearnaise sauce and lemon slices.
(d) Poisson Meuniere a l'orange: Fillet of fish cooked meuniere style topped with beurre
noisette having orange juice, garnished with orange segments.
(e) Poisson Meuniere aux Amandes: Fish cooked meuniere style topped with beurre noisette
having short juliennes of almonds.
(j) Poisson Belle Meuniere: Fish cooked meuniere style garnished with grilled mushroom, sliced peeled tomato and a soft herring roe (passed through flour and shallow fried).
(g) Poisson Meuniere doria. Fish meuniere garnished with blanched turned cucumber tossed in butter.
(h) poisson meuniere grenobloise. fish meuniere garnished with peeled lemon cut into segments, sprinkled with capers on top.
(i) Poisson meuniere Bretonne: Fish cooked meuniere style garnished with shrimps and cooked
sliced mushrooms.
(j) Poisson Carlier: Filleted fish cut into goujons tossed in butter, cooked in meuniere fashion dressed on creamy macroni, topped with minced mushrooms tossed in butter with port wine.
(k) Fillet de Sole a la Grecque—Fillet of sole, shallow fried, dressed on pilaf rice and coated with tomato sauce mixed with dices of pimentos.
(l) Fillet De Sole Louisiane—Fillet of sole cooked in butter, garnished with roundels of cooked bananas and dice of red pimento on each fillet, coat with beurre noisette mixed with dices of tomato concasse.
(m) Fillet de Sole Marcelle: Fillet of sole, folded, cooked with butter and lemon juice, placed on barquettes garnished with soft roe puree, decorated with slices of truffles.
(n) Ftllet de Sole Miramar. Fillet of sole, cut into lozenge shape, floured, cooked in butter dressed on a layer of cooked rice, surround with fried egg plant.

deep fried fish
(a) Filet de Stromatee a l 'Anglaise: Fillet of pomfret clipped in egg, crumbed and deep fried, served with tartare sauce. (Tartare Sauce—Mayonnaise + chopped shallots + chives + chopped boiled egg).
(b) Sole Colbert: Sole opened along the back, bread crumbed and deep fried, cavity inside is filled with maitre d'hotel butter.
(c) Filet de Stromatee Hoteliere: Fillet of pomfret bread crumbed, deep fried, dressed on maitre d'hotel butter, mixed with duxelles, bordered with lemon slices.
(d) Sole Frite: Fillet of sole, dipped in milk, passed through seasoned flour deep fried, garnished with lemon wedge and parsley.
(e) Sole Mireille: Sole cooked colbert style stuffed with bearnaise sauce, surround with dicesof tomato concasse, crushed garlic, chopped parsley. (Bearnaise Sauce—Hollandaise + Chopped tarragon and chervil).
(f) Filet de Stromate a l'orly: Fillet of pomfret dipped in yeast fermented batter or french batter, fried deep fat, garnished with parsley, served with tomato sauce.
(g) Sole Richelieu: Identical preparation as sole colbert with addition of a line of truffle blades in cavity along with maitre d'hotel butter (Maitre d'hotel butter—Creamed butter + black pepper, lemon juice and chopped parsley).
(h) Poisson Sully: Breaded, deep fried fillets garnished with parsley, served with bearnaise sauce and anchovy butter.
(i) Sole Veron: Fillet dipped in butter, crumbed, deep fried dressed on veron sauce. (Veron Sauce: 3 parts Normande Sauce +1 part Tyrolienne Sauce + Meat Glaze + Anchovy Essence).
(Normande Sauce=Fish Veloute+Mushroom Essence+Egg Yolk+Cream)
(Tyrobenne Sauce=Bearnaise Sauce+Tomato Puree)

grilled fish
(a) Sole Bedfort: Grilled sole, dressed with maitre d'hotel butter, surround with round toast topped with half mushroom puree and half spinach puree coated with mornay, glaze the
(b) Sole Grillee: Fillet passed through seasoned floured, oiled and grilled, served with tartare sauce.
(c) Sole Nicoise: Grilled whole fish or fillets garnished with tomato concasse, caper, black olives, anchovy fillets, finished with noisette butter and chopped fine herbs
(d) Sole Saint Germain: Dipped in butter, crumbed and grilled, served with noisette potatoes and bearnaise sauce.
(e) Sole Caprice: Breaded fillet of sole grilled, garnished half banana which is tossed in
butter with demerara sugar and lemon juice.

baked fish
(a) Poisson Cecilia: Fillets cooked in butter garnish with asparagus head, sprinkle with grated parmesan and gratinate.
(b)fillet de stromatee Florentine: Poached fillet of pomfrot resting on cooked butter tossed leaf spinach topped with mornay, gratinated under salamander.
(c) Sole au gratin: Fillets cooked in fire proof dish with white wine, minced onions and mushrooms, garnished with whole mushrooms, sprinkled with bread crumbs and gratinated
(d) Sole Gillet: Poached fillets topped with white wine sauce, sprinkled with cheese, surround with duchesse potatoes (white wine sauce—fish veloute' + white wine + butter + cream)
(Pommes Duchesse—Mashed potatoes + butter + cream + egg yolks).
(e) Sole Helene: Poached fillet, dressed on a bed of noodles, coated with mornay sauce and
glazed. (Mornay Sauce—bdehamel + butter + grated cheese)
(f) Sole Jeovah: Poached fillets of fish dressed on salpicon of asparagus heads and shrimps
cohered with white wine sauce, topped with mornay and glazed.
(g)  Sole Parmentier: Poached fillets of sole on a bed of creamed potatoes topped with mornay sauce and gratinated.

cod fish
(a) Sole Italienne: Poached fillets of sole cut into strips put in mould along with aspic jelly, centre garnished with Italienne salad, served with mayonnaise sauce (Italienne salad=vegetable salads+diced salami+fillet of anchovy).
(b) Sole Moscovite: Paupiettes of sole stuffed with caviar, poached, topped with aspic, served with russe sauce. (Russe Sauce=Mayonnaise+Caviare Puree+Mustard+Creamy parts of lobster)

poached fish
(a) Sole Amiral: Poached fillet of sole coated with white wine sauce garnished with small
onions and mushroom heads.
(b) Sole Bonaparte: Poached fillet of fish with reduced fish stock, butter and cream garnished with small potatoes, chopped parsley.
(c) Sole Bourguignonne: Poached fillet of fish in red wine sauce garnished with button onion and mushrooms.
(d) Sole Carmen: Poached fillet garnished with diamonds of red pimentos, masked wine sauce.
(e) Sole Choisy: Poached fillets masked with white wine sauce, juliennes of letuce and truffles added.
(f) Filet de Stromatee Duglere: Fillet of pomfret poached topped with fish veloute with dry white wine, diced tomato concasse and chopped parsley.
(g) Sole Veronique: Poached fillets of sole with reduced stock mixed with butter cayenne
pepper, lemon juice and grape juice, glaze, garnish with pitted grapes.
Note: Escoffier created this dish at Carlton hotel, London, naming it after a play, featuring it at first night theatrical supper party held at the hotel.
(h) Sole Jouffrey. Poached fillets in white wine with sliced mushrooms, coated with white wine sauce, garnished with small bouchees filled with asparagus heads and sliced mushrooms.
(i) Sole Lacam: Poached fillet of fish with white wine sauce, garnished with dices of truffles and heart shaped croutons.
(j) Sole Lydia: Poached fillet of sole with white wine sauce garnished with shrimps and
asparagus heads.
(k) Sole Marseillaise: Poached fillet of fish with white wine sauce mixed with saffron.
(l) Sole Sarcey: Poached fillet of sole with reduced stock, butter, garnished with juliennes of mushrooms, truffles and gherkins.
(m) sole walewska: fillet of sole poached topped with mornay sauce garnished with slices of truffles and collops of cooked lobster.

international fish preparation
1) Bouillabaisse Marseillaise: It is prepared with all fish from mediterranean sea like whitings, conger eels, red mullets, langoustines, boudreuil, frelas etc. Large fishes are cut and others whole fried in oil, kept aside. Add minced onions, leeks, crushed garlic, bayleaf and fennel to oil, moisten with water, white wine, also add fried fish pieces and cook, serve with fried sliced bread on which cooking liquor is poured.
2) Bouillabaisse Parisienne can be made with other fish using the same process as marscillaise.
3) Eel Pie: Traditional British fare-one time speciality of Eel pie Island on the Thames. It is also known as pate chaud d'Anguilles a 1'Anglaise. Cut pieces of fish arranged in pie dish with seasoning, mixed herbs, nutmeg, parsley, hard boiled eggs, moisten with white wine and fish stock, covered with puff paste and baked.
4) Haddock Souffle: Sea water fish best known smoked. Smoked haddock is traditional
breakfast dish but also popular as a supper dish. It can be prepared as a souffle, which is
puree of cooked smoked haddock with butter, flour and milk along with egg yolks and egg
whites beaten separately to a Stiff point and mixed by folding and baked in the hot oven.
5) Homard Americaine—Lobster are judged for quality by weight rather than size. The smaller and heavier are better.
This dish should be prepared from a live hen lobster complete with eggs or spawn carried on under the belly. It is illegal in British waters to land lobster in spawn.
Pieces of cut lobsters are marinated with seasoning and cayenne pepper fried in oil and butter. Add chopped shallots, white wine, fish stock, dices of tomatoes and tomato puree. When the meat gets cooked, shell pieces turn bright red from black, pick out the shell pieces, arrange on serving dish.
To prepare the sauce, use the same above preparation without meat and add eggs of live hen lobster and coral, creamy part, reduce and strain the sauce. To the strained sauce add butter. Pour the sauce over the meat pieces in serving dish.
the classic dishmay be prepared by masking sauce americaine on cooked lobster.
6) Homard Cardinal: Lobster is cooked, halved, the meat removed and sliced, arranged in the lightly buttered half shell with a mixture of mornay and americaine sauce and gratinated
under salamander.
7) Homard Grille: Split alive in halves, season with salt and cayenne pepper paste with oil and grill serve with melted butter.
8) Homard Newburg: This recipe first featured at Delmonico's in New York from the recipe of a regular client, Dr. Newburg. It is prepared with cooked lobster. Cooked lobster cut into slices, sauted in butter and oil. moistened with brandy and madeira wine, dress in timbale. coat with liasion of egg yolk and cream, glaze.
9) Homard Thermidor: The term thennidor indicates a sauce which is hot and piquante (sharp
or pungent).
Lobster cooked, split in halves, meat removed from shells; shells brushed with melted butter and sliced lobster meat arranged back into shells along with mornay sauce to which English mustard reconstituted with vinegar, cayenne and lemon juice is incorporated. The preparation is sprinkled with grated cheese and gratinatcd under salamander.
10) Homard turque —Homard Americaine served with a border of pilaf rice.
11) Coulibiac—Russian fish pie prepared with salmon or sturgeon and shaped like sandwich loaf, cut into thick slices, served with melted butter. It is prepared trom pancakes, rice,
mushroom, fish and cabbage.


macroni, spaghetti, noodles etc.
(a) Bolognaise: Boiled pasta tossed in butter with meat sauce and cheese.
(b) Gratin: Boiled pasta tossed in butter with cream, add mornay sauce, sprinkle grated cheese and bread crumbs and gratinate.
(c) italienne: Boiled pasta tossed in butter with cream and grated cheese mixed together.
(d) Milanaise: Boiled pasta tossed in butter with juliennes of tongue, ham mushrooms and truffles cohered with tomato sauce and grated cheese,
(e) Napolitaine: Cooked pasta dressed with butter, grated cheese and dices of tomatoes and tomato sauce
(f) nicoise: cooked pasta dressed with butter, cream and grated cheese, add chopped onions, garlic and tomatoes.
(g) sicilienne: cooked pasta with butter, chopped onions, grated cheese, minced beef, tomato, sliced aubergine, chopped red pimentos and a pinch of mixed herbs.
(h) Marie Jeanne: Cooked pasta with butter, cheese and combined with tomatoes, diced grilled bacon.

Stuffed roundels or square pasta may be stuffed with chopped shallots, minced chicken, chopped spinach, minced beef, cooked brain, game, oatmeal or bread-crumbs and tomatoes etc. eg.
(a) Ravioli Varenikis—Russian version of Ravioli with sweet and savoury fillings.
the filling is of cream or cottage cheese with egg yolk, salt, sugar and paprika, lemon juice, nutmeg and grated cheese. The filled varenikis are poached in water, tossed in butter, topped with cheese and gratinated, served masked with sour cream and beetroot juice or just with grated cheese.
As a sweet, pasta is poached in milk, tossed in butter, served with puree of apricot or strawberry or cherry or raspberry.
(b) Ravioli Sicilienne—Cooked pasta, tossed in butter, ravioli stuffed with chopped shallots pimentos, tomatoes, sliced aubergines and minced beef and a mix of fine herbs, cover with grated cheese.

Gnocchi farinacious food may be prepared from choux paste, semolina or potato. The one made from choux paste is French gnocchi and the other made from semolina or potato is Italian
(a) Gnocchi a la Romaine—Italian gnocchi arranged in a butter dish with melted butter sprinkle with grated parmesan cheese and gruyere and gratinated in hot oven.

(b) Gnocchi a la Parisienne—French gnocchi, poached arranged in butter dish masked with-supreme sauce, sprinkled with gruyere cheese and gratinated under salamander.
(Supreme sauce—Reduced veloute + cream)


a) oeuf en cocotte(baked egg): the cocotte is a ceramic receptacle large enough to contain one egg. the cocotte is lined with butter, egg is broken and baked in double boiler in hot oven.
b) Oeuf Benedictine: Poached egg arranged on toasted muffin and roundel of ox tongue, masked with hollandaise sauce and glazed, garnished with chopped parsley.
c) Omelette Bonne Femme: An omelette with dices of bacon, minced mushrooms and slices of onion tossed in butter.
d) Omelette Fromage: Grated parmesan. gruyere or cheddar omelette.
e) Omelette aux Tomates: Omelette rilled with tomato concasse and chopped parsley.
f) Omelette Princess: Omelette with fine herbs garnished with asparagus tips and truffles.
g) Scotch Egg: Hard boiled egg, shelled, wrapped in a layer of sausage or force meat, bread
crumbed and deep fried. Served with salads and tomato sauce.
h) omelette espagnole(spanish omelette): an omelette flat like pancake, fluffy with minced onions cooked in butter, dices of tomatoes, diced red pepper.


In this mostly vol-all-vents with variety of stuffings are served, Vol-au-vents are individual puff, paste case, an all purpose affair. Fillings are cooked in advance and should be hot;
a)  Vol-au-Vent de Volaille—diced chicken, button mushrooms wrapped in veloute saues stuffed in puff pastry case, baked, garnished with a truffle blade.
b) Vol-au-Vent de Cervelle—Diced poached brain with supreme sauce in puff case with truffle blade topped.
c) Vol-au-Vent de Morue—Diced poached cod, sliced mushroom and chopped parsley in bechamel sauce, truffle blade topped
d) Vol-au-Vent Victoria—Puff pastry filled with diced lobster truffle in fish veloute combined with lobster butter.

organ meat
a)Rognons Saute Bercy: Slices of kidney, tossed in butter, seasoned covered with bercy
sauce. (Bercy Sauce: Chopped shallots + white wine + meat glaze + butter + dices of
marrow + chopped parsley).
b) Rognons Saute Bordelaise: Diced kidneys tossed in butter, add bordelaise sauce, mix with dices of marrow and minced mushrooms(bordelaise sauce-butter+ chopped shallots+ pepper + thume + bay leaf + red wine + demiglaze, strained)
c) Rognom Saute Turbigo: Halved kidney tossed in butter, add tomatoed demiglaze tomatoed dressed on kidney-shaped croutons, garnish with grilled chipolatas and mushroom heads, finish with chopped parsley.
d) Foie a l'Anglaise: Seasoned floured escalopes of liver sauted in butter dressed alternately with grilled bacon, finished with noisette butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley,
e) Foie Espagnole: Grilled slices of liver, garnish with grilled tomatoes, roundels of fried onions and chopped parsley,
f) Foie Lyonnaise: Seasoned floured sliced liver fried with minced blanched onion, chopped fine herbs and a dash of vinegar, served with noisette butter and chopped parsley.
g) Cervelles au Beurre Noir: Poached brain tossed in butter with lemon juice or vinegar, add capers and chopped parsley.
h) Cervelles Frites a l 'Anglaise or Crvelles Pane": Sliced uncooked brain, seasoned,
breadcrumbed and deep fried, served with tomato sauce.
i) Cervelles Ravigote: Poached brain tossed in butter, covered with Ravigote sauce. (Ravigot Sauce — Butter + chopped shallots + white wine + vinegar + veloute + chervil + tarragon + chives).


a) cote de porc charcutiere; Grilled pork chop (chop is a cut from* loin and rib), covered with charcutiere sauce, served with mashed potatoes. (Charcutiere Sauce = Robert Sauce + Jnhennes of Gherkins; Robert Sauce = Butter + chopped onions + white Wine + vinegar + pepper + demi Glaze + mustard).
b) cote de Porc Ftamande: Shall fry pore chop, topped with sliced apples.
c) Cote de Porc Grillee: Grilled pork chop, served with Robert sauce.
d) Cote de Porc Hawaiian: Grilled pork chop, garnished with butter tossed pineapple ring with a red cherry in centre and finished with noisette butter.
e) Cote de Porc a la Tartare: Marinated pork chop in vinegar grilled serve sandwiched between equal amounts of shredded fried onion and thinly sliced pickled cucumber, finish with noisette butter and chopped parsley.
f) Porc Roti (Roast Pork). The roasting joints are leg and loin. They are accompanied by stuffing, rich brown gravy and apple sauce. A light herb and onion stuffing prepared with chopped baked onion stewed in dripping with chopped cooked liver of pig, white breadcrumbs soaked in milk, seasoning, nutmeg, lemon juice, sage and parsley cohered with beaten egg.
A rich brown gravy is prepared by swilling roasting tray, adding com flour or arrowroot with seasoning.
Apple sauce is prepared by making puree of apples and spices. Alternatives are small baked
apple, apple fritters or spiced compote.

(a) Gigot d' Agneau Roti: Roast leg of mutton, served with pan gravy, mint sauce and red currant jelly. (Mint Sauce = Vinegar + salt + pepper + chopped Mint)
(b) Irish Stew: A speciality of Ireland. Cubes of mutton with aromates like onions, carrots and celery in braising pan with alternate layers of thinly sliced potatoes and button onions stewed till tender, garnished with chopped parsley. The tradition acconipaniment is pickled red cabbage and Worcestershire sauce.
(c) Carre d' Agneau Roti Boulangere: Famous preparation of roast lamb's best end, sliced
new potatoes arranged in layers in fire proof dish with blanched sliced onions, moistened with stock, dotted with butter, oven baked to brown the topping, garnished with chopped parsley/watercress.
(d) Navarin de Mouton Prtntanier: Cubes of mutton fried flavoured with bouquet garni, with seasoning and sugar, removed from fat, add flour cook, then add tomato puree and water, simmer along with meat till just done, add turned carrots, potatoes, turnips and french beans, cook till vegetables are done.
(e) Moussaka: A greek preparation of cooked minced lamb and abuergine made in fireproof greased dish with lining on the sides of sliced fried aubergine and in the centre with alternate layers of minced meat and aubergine pulp topped with bechamel and parmesan cheese and gratinaied.
(f) Shish Kebab: A dish of Turkish origin made from cubes of lamb marinated with salt, lemon juice, olive oil, wine, vinegar spices and herbs alternately skewered with vegetables and fruits like apple, pineapple, peppers, onion, tomatoes etc.) cooked on hot grill, served with pilaf rice
(g) Lancashire Hot Pot: Mutton chops, sliced kidneys, mushrooms, sliced blanched onion, chopped ham, sliced potatoes arranged in layers in braising pan, moistened with stock, dot of butter braised till stew is ready. Traditional escort to this preparation is pickled red cabbage.
(h) Cote d' Agneau Marechale: Lamb chop dipped in egg and breadcrumbs, shallow fry, garnish
with slices of truffles, asparagus heads.

a) fritto misto: noted italian dish, batter fried raw calves' liver, cooked calves' brain, balls of leaf spinach, cauliflower served with tomato sauce and tomato sauce and lemon wedges. batter iss prepared with flour, egg yolk, parmesan cheese, milk and seasoning.
b) Escalope de veau a l'Anglaise: Thin veal escalope covered with breadcrumbs shallow fried, .garnished  with bacon, parsley potatoes and tomato sauce.
c) Escalope de Veau Cordon Bleu: Two equal size thin escalopes sandwiched with parma/york ham and gruyere cheese, dipped in egg, bread crumbs and shallow fried garnished with lemon roundels served with noisette butter.
d)  Escalope de Veau Holstein: Escalope of veal seasoned, breaded and shallow fried, topped with fried egg, decorated with criss-crossed juliennes of anchovy fillet dotted with capers, finished with noisette butter and chopped parsley.
e) Escalope de Veau Viennoise: The noted Weiner schnitzel. adopted World War1 in commemoration of the Belgium city sacked by Kaiser Armies. Since Austria fought on the side of Germany, Vienna was out of favour.
seasoned excalope of veal, bread crumbed, shallo fried garnished with lemon roundels, anchovy fillet coiled with spanish olive, capers, chopped parsley, chopped white and sieved yolk of hard boiled egg, finished with noisette butter.
f) Osso Bucco: A veal knuckles stew. It is prepared with veal knuckles, butter, sliced onions, bouquet garni, covered with stock, tomato puree.

a) Cote de Boeuf a la Jardiniere: Roast beef (rib) accompanied by peas, diced french beans,
turned carrots and turnips, asparagus tips, lima beans or butter beans or madagascar beans
and cauliflower florets.
(b) Roast Beef of England: Thick slice of roast rib of beef charred on outside, moistly tender within, served on a platter with jacket potatoes, pan gravy, horseradish sauce, green beans, puree of green peas, brussel sprouts swathed in delicately browned butter bread crumbs and dressed green salad.
c) Barbecue Steak: Season and saute single or double sirloin steak in butter, mask with barbecue sauce (Barcecue Sauce = American Spiced Sauce made by Vinegar + minced onion +brown sugar + tomato ketchup + salt + paprika + cayenne + cinnamon + clove + nutmeg cook till boiling point)
(d) Carpet Bag Steak: Fillet or thick cut rump steak stuffed with oysters lie in a mushroom sauce and grilled. Served with beamaise sauce.(bearnaise sauce = hollandaise sauce + chopped tarragon  +chopped shallots).
(e) steak diane: Prepared on flambe trolley. Minute steak (obtained from sirloin) seasoned with salt and pepper, saute in butter, sprinkle Worcestershire sauce, flame in brandy serve with maitre d' hotel butter. Prepared an flambe trolley. Melt butter, add minced onions, tomato puree, chopped mushrooms, make sauce. Now place minute steak on pan which is seasoned vcs& sail and per pet; sprinkle with Worcestershire sauce, flame with brandy serve with sauce.
f) Monkey Gland Steak: Prepared at flambe trolley. Season and saute minute steak in butter serve with spaghetti tossed in butter with seasoning, tomato sauce, grated parmesan. It may
be prepared with a flattened rump steak.
g) Chateaubriand Steak (Double Fillet Steak): Double fillet steak seasoned with salt and pepper brushed on both sides with oil, grilled, serve garnished with watercress, deep fried potato and sauce bearnaise. (1) Biencuit-Welldone (2) Au Bleu-Rare-Done/Underdone (3)
Saignani Bleu-Medium Done
h) Bitoks a la Russe: Chopped raw beef mixed with breadcrumbs soaked in milk, pressed, cooked chopped onions, egg and seasoned, cooked in clarified butter, served with smitanne sauce. (Smitanne Sauce = A noted Russian Sauce-Butter + minced shallots + mushrooms + seasoning + cayenne + sour cream, This sauce can be prepared with velout-5 base as well.
i) Filet de Boeuf Duchesse: The fillet is pure meat lacking fat, it is not roasted but
poele, a cooking process similar to braising, covered with demi glaze, served with duchesse
(duchesse potatoes = masshed potatoes + butter + cream + egg yolk)
j) Tournedos a l' Alsacienne: Tournedos seasoned with salt and pepper, saute in butter or grilled dressed on crouton, garnished with braised sauerkraut and thick sliced ham.   .
k) Beef Strognoff: Sliced fillet of beef seasoned and floured tossed in butter, add minced shallots, white wine, sliced mushroom, add cream, lemon juice and a dash of vinegar, served with piiaf rice.
(l) carbonnade of Beef: Diced stewing steak braised with onions in brown sauce incorporating beer.
(m) Corned Beef Hash: Popular American dish. Saute chopped onions in butter, add diced corned beef and saute potatoes, mash with a fork season with salt, pepper and Worcester sauce, shape like an omelette, arrange on serving dish, finish with noisette butter and chopped parsley.
(n) Hungarian Goulash: Saute sliced collops of stewing beef in butter, remove from pan, add minced shallots, celery, carrots, salt, pepper, paprika, tomato puree thicken with flour, add sauted beef which is kept aside, sprinkle few gnocchis. In Hungary this dish is called Gulyas.

a) Poulet Roti (Roast chicken): Trussed chicken, seasoned, roasted in oven, finished with noisette butter, dressed with a bouquet of watercress. It is served with bread sauce and pan gravy. (Bread sauce = Bread crumbs + seasoning + cayenne + milk flavoured with onion
studded with clove+cream-optional).
b) Kentucky Fried Chicken: Chunks of chicken flesh on bone marinated with vinaigrette with plenty of mustard powder, passed through seasoned flour, dipped in egg, rolled in freshly made cornflakes and fried, served with tomato sauce.
c) Poulet a la King: Sliced mushrooms, dices of pimentos sauted in butter, add chicken, sherry and veloute, finish with cream and egg yolk. Decorate with strips of pimentoes. It is served with border of golden brown duchesse potato or pilaf rice as an accompaniment.
d) Poulet Saute" Alexandra: Sauted chicken, with thin Soubise and cream garnish with asparagus heads. (Soubise = Bechamel + cooked chopped onions, strained, finish with butter and cream).
e) Poulet Saute" Archiduc: Sauted chicken swilled with fortified wine, whisky, veloute and cream cooked with brunoise of vegetables and truffles.
f) Poulet Saute" Bohimienne: Sauted chicken with white wine, add tomato demi glaze, garlic and fennel coat with sauce; garnish with sliced tomatoes and sweet pimentoes. It is served
with plain rice.
g) Poulet Saute" Bourguigonne: Sauted chicken, swill with red wine, add demi glaze, garlic,
garnish with glazed onion, dices of bacon and mushrooms, chopped parsley.
h) Poulet Saute Chasseur: Sauted chicken add white wine, brandy, add sliced mushrooms and
chopped shallots tossed in butter then add tomato half glaze garnish with chopped parsley.
i) Poulet Saute Durand: Chicken pieces coated with seasoned flour, sauted in oil, garnish with roundels of fried onion and ham cone filled with diced tomatoes cooked in butter. ,
j) Poulet Saute Hongroise: Saute chicken pieces with paprika and chopped onions, add cream, hongroise sauce and tomato concasse, serve with a border of pilaf rice.
k) Poulet Saute au Curry or Poulet Saute Indienne: Saute seasoned chicken, lightly brown, add chopped onions, garlic and curry powder, cook, add flour, mix in tomato puree and stock, add chopped apples, dessicated coconut grated root ginger, bring to boil, finish with cream or yoghurt.
l) Poulet Saute Laperouse: Saute chicken, swill with brandy, add mushrooms puree, cream and egg yolks, garnish with artichoke bottoms filled with mushroom puree and glaze.
m) Poulet Saute Marengo: Saute chicken, add white wine, garlic, dices of tomato, tomato Hr^niglayp. mushroom heads and slices of truffles garnish with cray fish, fried egg. croutons and chopped parsley.
n) Poulet Saute Mexicaine: Chicken sauted in oil, add white wine, tomato veal stock,
with grilled capsicum filled with dices of tomatoes and mushrooms.
o) Poulet Viennoise: Breast of chicken deboned and flattened, seasoned, dipped in egg, bread crumbed and shallow fried, garnished with lemon roundels, chopped white and sieved yolk on egg (hard boiled), chopped parsley, capers and anchory fillet coiled with Spanish olive is finished with noisette butter.
p) Poulet Maryland: Breast of chicken deboned and flattened, dipped in egg, bread crumbed, shallow fried, served with grilled bacon, grilled tomatoes, banana fritters, sweet corn pancake and pommes croquettes, serve horse radish sauce separately. (Horse Radish Sauce = grated horseradish + salt + sugar + cayenne + lemon juice + english mustard + vinegar -r whipped cream. It is also called sauce Raifort.)

India being a traditional vegetarian country has variety of dishes to offer. The spread of vegetarianism has already reached the west. More and more health conscious, spritually alighted men and women of all religions are switching over to vegetarianism. As a main course a few western dishes are well known. They may be placed on each and every menu dealing in continental foe whereas Indian vegetarian dishes are concerned, a volume can be written. However, a very important dishes of importance can only be incorporated.

a)Fromage Shaslik: Cubes of cottage cheese, quarters of tomatoes, capsicum and onions marinated with lemon juice and seasoning. gilled.
b)cotelette de degumes: mashed boiled vegetables like potatoes, peas, carrots etc. made into cutlet shape, dipped in egg. bread crumbed, deep fried to a golden brown colour, served with tomato sauce.
c) Legumes a la kiev: Mashed boiled potatoes with vegetables like carrots, peas, beans etc. made into dome shape, stuffed with garlic butter, dipped in egg, bread crumbed, and deep
fried to a golden brown colour, served with tomato sauce.
d) Crepe de Legumes: Pancake stuffed with sauted vegetables like carrots, cabbage, capsicum, onions etc, folded into square, dipped in egg, rolled in bread crumbs, deep fried to a golden brown colour, served with tomato sauce.
e) Ratatouille Nicoise: Cubes of aubergine, sweet gourd, sliced onions, juliennes of capsicum, garlic, tossed in butter with tomato puree, garnished with croutons.
f) Legumes au gratin: Assorted vegetables like french beans, mushroom, carrots, peas etc.
topped with mornay sauce and gratinated.
g) Champignons au gratin: Sliced mushrooms tossed in butter topped with mornay sauce and
gratinated under salamander.
h) Choufleurs au gratin: Florets of cauliflower parboiled topped with mornay and gratinated
under salamander.
i) Artichaut Clamart: Artichokes with new carrots and peas, mix herbs cooked in cocotte
with butter, a little water.
j) Artichaut Lyonnaise: Quarters of artichokes, sliced onions tossed in butter, braised, sprinkle with chopped parsley.
k) Asperges Pointes Royale: Asparagus heads with juliennes of truffle, dressed with Allemande sauce (Allemande Sauce = Veloute + Egg Yolks).
l) Bubble and Squeak: Seasoned mashed potatoes and cooked cabbage, shallow fried.
m) Mixed Vegetables: Assorted vegetables like carrots, turnips, french beans, peas, button mushrooms, button onion, cauliflower, parboiled and tossed in butter.
n) Champignons Maitre d' Hdtel: Large grilled mushrooms on toast, .served with maitre d hotel butter.
o) Stuffed Peppers: Seed and blanch pepper filled with cooked savoury rice or risotto moist
with vegetable stock and braised.
p) Risotto: The Italian way, chopped onions tossed in butter with seasoning, rice and nutmeg cooked in oven, finished with grated parmesan.
q) risi Bisi: Risotto garnished with green peas and diced pimentos tossed in butter.
r) Succotash: Equal quantities of sweet corn and lima beans cooked in butter, add dash of cream. It is a famous American preparation,
s) Truffles (Truffes): It is black diamond of cookery and aristocrat of mushroom family. Truffles vary in size from walnut to apple. The outer surface is rough and warty, when sliced white veins are visible. The colour varies from jet black to grey. The best way to prepare truffles is; the seasoned truffles are wrapped in grease proof paper and roasted in wood ash.
The famous preparations of truffles are>
(i)  Truffes a la Creme: Cooked truffles with fresh cream.
(ii)  Truffes a la Serviette: Truffles sealed in ceramic dish with mirepoix, madeira and brandy, cooked in oven, dressed in serviette, served with demiglaze.
t) Courgettes a la Turque: Small marrows stuffed with pilaf rice having saffron, cooked peas diced pimentos, finished by braising au jus.

potato(pommes de terre)
Some examples of potato (Pommes de Terre) accompaniments served with continental main course
(a) Pommes de terre Allumette—Potatoes cut into matchstick size and deep fried to a golden brown colour.
(b) Pommes de terre Anna—Potatoes cut into cylindrical shape, sliced in rounds, arranged in layers in pan with butter, cooked in oven, when half done turned over to colour both the sides.
(c) Pommes de terre Bataile—Potatoes cut into dices and deep fried.
(d) Pommes de terre Bordelaise—potatoes cut into 1/2 inch cubes and cooked in butter along with chopped garlic.
(e) Pommes de terre Boulangere—Sliced onions and potatoes, cooked in butter, moisten with consomme cooking finished in the oven.
(f) Pommes de terre Brioche—Pommes duchesse shaped like brioche and baked in the oven.
(g) Pommes de terre Chateau—Potatoes shaped like large olive, blanched, roasted to nice brown colour.
(h) Pommes de terre Duchesse—Mashed potatoes with butter and cream, thickened with egg
(i) Pommes au four—Large potatoes baked in oven with skin, served with a dot of butter,
j) Pommes de terre Hongroise—Large roundels of potatoes with chopped onions, dices o1 tomatoes, paprika, cooked in butter, moistened with consomme, garnished with chopped parsley
k) Pommes de terre Lorette—One part choux paste and two parts duchesse potatoes shaped like cigar, egg and bread crumbs and deep try.
(l) Pommes de terre Macaire—Mashed baked potato pulp, seasoned, add butter, shape into round flat, shallow fry.
(m) Pommes de terre Mignonnette—Cut into double size of matchstick and deep fry.
(n) Pommes de terre Mousseline—Mashed potatoes with whipped cream.
(o) Pommes de terre paille—Potatoes cut into large juliennes and deep fried.
(p) Pommes de terre Parmentier—Potatoes cut into 1/2 inch cubes and cooked in clarified butter.
(q) Pommes de terre Persillees—Whole potatoes boiled, tossed in butter, add chopped parsley.
(r) Pommes de terre Pont Neuf—potatoes cut into shape of ruler and deep fried.
(s) Pommes de terre Sautees—Potatoes cooked in their jackets, peel cut into slices and toss in butter till brown.
(t) Pommes de terre voisin—Anna potatoes with grated cheese.
(u) pommes de terre puree- mahsed potatoes with butter and cream.
(v) pommes de terre robert- made like pomes macaire with addition of egg in misture.

other vegetable accompaniments
Examles of vegetable accompaniments served with main course
(a) Aubergine Frite—Brinjal cut into thin round sliced, passed through seasoned flour, deep fried.
(b) Aubergine Egyptienne—Aubergine skin filled with chopped onions and chopped pulp of brinjal obtained by frying brinjal, garnished with roundels of tomatoes and chopped parsley.
(c) Aubergine Nimoise— Egg plant cut in halves, fried in oil garnish with tomatoes, dices of pepper (sweet), garlic and parsley.
(d) carottes a la Creme—Parboiled turned carrots shaped like olives tossed in butter, add salt, sugar and cream.
(e) Carottes Vichy—Carrots cut in slices cooked in vichy water tossed in butter, add salt, sugar, sprinkle chopped parsley.
(f) Champignons Farcis—Mushroom heads tossed in butter, season, stuff with duxelles
(g) Champignons Grilles—Mushroom heads, oiled, seasoned and grilled
(h) Choux a l' Anglaise—Green cabbage cooked in salted water press between plates,cut into
(i) Choux-Fleurs en Fritot—Small florets of cauliflower partly cooked, passed through seasoned flour, deep fried.
(j) Choux Fleurs Polonaise—Cooked florets of cauliflower in butter dish topped with hard boiled egg and bread crumbs, browned in butter.
(k) Concombres Glaces—Olive shaped cucumber cooked in salted water, tossed in butter
(l) Courgettes Provencale—Parboiled baby marrow or sweet gourd cut into dices, tossed in butter with garlic, diced tomatoes, pulp of marrow and bread crumbs.
(m) Epinards a la Creme—Puree of spinach with cream.
(n) Epinards au Gratin—Puree of spinach topped with grated cheese and nut brown butter,
(o) Haricots Verts au beurre—Diamonds of french beans cooked in salted water, tossed in
(p) Oignons Frits—Roundels of onions passed through seasoned flour and deep fried.
(q) Oienons Glaces—Small onions tossed in butter, moistened and glazed
(r) petit Pois au beurre—Boiled green peas, tossed in butter.
(s) petit Pois a la Ftamande—Cubes of carrots and boiled green peas tossed in butter.
(t) petit Pois a la Menthe—Boiled green peas tossed in butter, add mint leaves.
(u) pimentoes farcis-grilled capsicum stuffed with pilaf rice.


1. Sorbet a la peche (Peach Sorbet) Puree of peach with lemon juice flavoured with
2. Sorbet a la poire (Pear Sorbet) Puree of pears without pips flavoured with lemon juice and frozen.
3. Sorbet a la framboise (Raspberry Sorbet) Puree of raspberry flavoured with lemon juice and frozen.
4. Sorbet awx fruits exotique (Sorbet of exotic fruits) Puree of pineapple, mango and banana flavoured with lemon juice and cinnamon and frozen.
5. Sorbet au calvados. A light sugar syrup flavoured with vanilla pod with lemon juice and a pinch of cinnamon finished with calvados and frozen.
6. sorbet au cacao aux raisins. A sugar syrup with water, cocoa and vanilla essence and dark rum mixed with raisins soaked in whisky and frozen.
7. Spooms. are sorbets made with a syrup at 20° on the sacchrometer. Italian meringue is added to it to make it frothy and light. Spooms are made with fruit juice but more often with wine such as champagne, muscat, Zucco etc.
8. Punch a la romaine. Sugar syrup flavoured with dry white wine or champagne with orange juice and lemon juice and a thin strip of orange and lemon zest finished with rum.
9. Sorbet a la sicilienne. Scoops of green water melon flavoured with maraschino on crushed ice.
10.Marquise. Sorbet is prepared at 17 degree on sacchrometcr. Creme strawberry or pineapple puree finished with kirsch and frozen.
11. Granites.a thin syrup of not more than 14 degree on the saccharometer without the addition of italian meringue.


(a) Caneton Roti (Roast duckling)—The trussed bird seasoned well roasted in preheated oven served with sage and onion dressing and apple sauce. Caneton is a domestic bird.
(b) Oie Roti (Roast Goose)—The bird is trussed, seasoned and floured, roasted, served with pan gravy and apple sauce. It is served at Christmas and other occasions.
(c) Dinde Rdti (Roast Turkey)—It is native of America, a famous game bird, native of america associated with Christmas, but has become all year round, also featured at Easter-and in collation with salads.
The bird is trussed, may be stuffed or not If not then seasoned and roasted. If stuffed, then the best stuffing is sage and onion, dressed with chestnuts and forcemeat roasted. Roast turkey goes well with pan gravy, bread sauce and cranberry sauce.
It can be garnished with grilled bacon, braised ham, frankfurter or chipolata, mushrooms and tomatoes.
(i)    Cranberry Sauce—Cranberries+sugar+water
(ii)    Spiced Cranberry Sauce—cranberries + sugar + clove + cinnamon + water,
(iii)  Tangy Cranberry Sauce—Spiced cranberry sauce + grated lemon peel.
(d) Canard Sauvage Roti (Roast wild duck). Trussed, seasoned and roasted, dressed on crouton spread with liver pate', garnished with watercress, finished with noisette butter served with traditional accompaniments
(i) Bread sauce
(ii) jus de roti
(iii)apple sauce and fried bread crumbs
(iv) game chips and orange salad
(e) Faisan Roti (Roast pheasant)—The bird is seasoned, trussed and roasted, set on a large crouton spread with liver pate, garnished with water cress, finished with noisette butter. The accornpaniments are bread sauce, pangravy, fried breadcrumbs and game chips.      ,
(f) Pigeon Roti (Roast Pigeon)—Bird is trussed, seasoned and roasted. It is dressed on crouton with watercress, served with bread sauce, pan gravy and game chips.
(g) Caille rotie (Roast quail)—Seasoned, wrapped in vine leaf, roasted, dressed on crouton, finished with lemon juice and noisette butter, garnished with watercress and served with jus de roti.
(h) Becasse Roti ((Roast woodcock)—Seasoned bird wrapped in vine leaf, roasted, served on
crouton spread with liver pate, garnished with watercress, finished with lemon juice and
noisette butter, served with bread sauce, jus de roti, fried breadcrumbs and game chips.


In case there is a vegetable in the main course this course becomes superfluous. Otherwise for light diet seekers, vegetable course becomes a main course by itself. The traditional vegetables which constitute this course are expensive items like asparagus, artichoke, broccoli, black mushrooms.They go at a table cooked simply either boiled or steamed, decorated with fancy cuts.

1. asparagus(asperge)
2. Artichoke (Artichaut)—There are two varieties internationally famous which are entirely different in appearance.
(a)    Globe artichoke
(b)    Jerusalem artichoke
Globe one is identified with vegetable coure. It is cabbage-like vegetable with thick lotus like petals. The petals have high cellulose fibres. They are broken by tearing one by one, the bottom is thicker which is chewed and sucked. The juice is extremely tasty which is further enhanced by sharp sauce like vinaigrette or hollandaise. Ultimately bare centre is exposed which looks like a pyramid. It is called core or heart of artichoke which is the tastiest part of the artichoke. This is completely edible, a knife and fork is recommended for eating this part of artichoke which has a texture somewhat like radish. Ideally the sauce should be supplied in a separate bowl so that the petals can be dipped and chewed. A trash bowl should be placed to dispose the chewed petals. It can be served cold or hot. This is preferred hot. A finger bowl is a must to pass.
3. Corn on the Cob (Mais Natural)—The fascinating but simple item of this course is corn on
the cob. Special spiked holders are used, they are stuck on two sides of hot, steamed or baked corn on the cob. There are always different spices available to sprinkle on it e.g. salt, rock salt, cayenne pepper. Melted butter is poured over it with a dessert spoon or ladle It is served in a large plate. It is rolled and consumed bite by bite and in between hot spicy sauce may be trickled on it. Hot corn on the cob is preferable than cold like baked than steamed preparation.
4.broccoli(calabress)- puple,cornish broccoli is cleaned simmered in salted water till cooked accompanied by hollandaise or mousseline sauce.


1. compote—h is prepared from hard fruits like apple, apricot, plums, guvava, fig cut into half moon shapes cooked in sugar syrup with nutmeg, cloves and cinnamon served chilled. If served at breakfast time, it is served hot. It is also called stewed fruits.
2. Charlottes—A very attractive looking sweet moulded with a combination of jelly lined with Swiss roil or sliced bread dipped in melted butter filled with spiced puree of fruits like apple or bavarois unmoolded and topped with apricot or other syrups or double
3. Pies—Basically they are short crust pastry filled with hard fruits apple cut in half moon shape with butter or custard having baked again, dredged with icing sugar.
4. Meringues—Meringue means basically whipped sweetened white of an egg. They are baked at a very high temperature with lemon, strawberry or chocolate colour and essence, given attractive designs by piping out on baking trays. They are also consumed with lots of whipped cream and a famous dish called meringue chantilly often appears on the menu.
5. Souffles—As described in meringue previously they are similar dishes served hot or cold A beaten white of an egg is taken as foundation. Souffles are fluffy light dishes. Cold dishes resemble ice creams in which white is beaten to stiff point with icing sugar and carefully folded into egg yolk which is already creamed with either chocolate powder or sugar or any other colouring or flavouring like lemon, pineapple, pistachio, praline and some grated ingredients. It is then frozen in deep freezer either demoulded or set in fancy bowls. Sometimes a little bit of gelatine, cream or milk are added to give body to souffle. However, they are more like mousse or bavarois.
6. puddings- is a very common word in western cuisine. The most famous of all is creme caramel it is a steamed mixture of fruits/or just milk, butter/cream mixed with egg. Flavoured, coloured withh various ingredients and set in a mould, served demolded with various canned or candied fruits or cream and black prunes, apples, mixed fruits, chocolate sauce, syrups and whipped cream, glazed cherries.
7. Strudels—German or Viennese origin the sweet pastry prepared from a mixture of egg, flour stuffed with puree of apples, apricot syrup, kitsch and must be flavoured with cinnamon somewhat resembling Chinese spring rolls.
8. Condes is a rice pudding prepared with a mixture of cooked rice, egg and milk which may be dressed with assorted fruits flavoured with liqueurs, garnished with rose petals, glazed cherries etc.
9. Bavarois—Moulded rich cream preparation similar to blanc mange or mousse flavoured with various permutations and layers of colours and essences e.g. Tricolour Bavarois. Most famous is simple Vanilla bavarois. it has egg yolk, sugar, milk, vanilla, gelatine and cream.
10. Creoles Shelled berries macerate in sugar, cranberry, pineapple and grapefruit juices and a touch of kitsch.
11. Blancmange—A light dish similar to bavarois prepared from milk, cornflour, sugar and a pinch of salt mixed with gelatine and cream.
12. Bouchees—Vol Au vent cases filled with preserves, sweetened purees, cream etc. also called cream rolls.
13. Glaces—Crystallized fruits and flower (very famous gulkund) processed and used as garnishes.
Candied peels are also called glace e.g. ginger, cherries, orange peel and grapefruit. They are often taken as dessert with fresh cream.
14. Profitroles. Eclairs and Puffs—Choux paste, puff paste cases filled with whipped sweetened cream coated with chocolate sauce topped with nuts. e.g. proifiterole suchard, chocolate eclairs.
15. Fritters—More or less Chinese or oriental items, fruits, vegetables are coated with sweetened cornflour and fried and dipped in syrups e.g. apple, pineapple fritters, doughnuts, bread and jam fritters.
16. Souffle fritters—They are bloated like balloons made of choux paste filled with creme patissiere, jam etc. butter fried served with jam sauce or custard.
17. Junkets is a famous way of serving sweetened milk predominantly flavoured with rennet (Enzyme used for making cheese), also flavoured with essences and compounds.
18. Kaisersmarren (Emperor's pudding)—Viennese bread and butter pudding made from buttered bread sprinkled with icing sugar, currants, egg yolks with milk, baked till crispy brown.
19. Savarin— Savarin refers to ring mould in which a very light yeast fermented cake is soaked in rum flavoured syrup lined with jam. dumped with dices of fruits, decorated with cream variation Baba au rhum made in original conical moulds soaked in sugar syrup and decorated with glazed cherry.
20. Gateaux—Stands for rich decorated cake with sponge or genoise base. There are hundreds
varieties. Some famous examples.
(a) Gateaux milles Feuilles:in U.S.A. and Scandinavian countries it is called Napoleon's cake. A thousand leaves cake, puff paste multideck sandwich alternately layered with cream, custard, fruits puree, preserves masked with apricot syrups, sides covered with chopped nuts, centre with fondant icing.
(b) Gateau Pithvier-Double layered puff paste filled with frangipane (egg custard), crimped sides, egg washed and baked or Puff or flaky pastry filled with pound cake and egg washed
and baked.
(c) Gateau St. honore—Short crust foundation and choux paste ring with balls of choux paste filled with whipped sweetened cream arranged on ring topped with sugar syrup and decorated with glazed cherry.
(d) gateau religieuse-Short crust base with alternate layers of chocolate and coffee
In a eclair in a circle slanting inward like a slope filled with bavarois.
(e) gateau foret noir(black foret cake)- it is known as schwarzwalder kauchen in german. the origin of this cake is located inthe state of baden-wirttemberg. as this cake is one of the finest and most brilliant work of art of pastry chef. there are large verdions of it and original recipe has cake with chocolate layers with kirsch (wild cherry liqueur, whipped cream, sour cherries and topped with chocolate curls/flakes.
(f) Gateau Printainier—Genoise decorated on side with cashewnuts topped with tricolour butter icing.
21. (Riz a l') Imperatrice—A rice pudding made of rice, milk, flavoured with vanilla essence, thickened with egg yolks, add gelatine with small crystallized diced fruits in kirsch set in mould lined with strawberry jelly, topped with lemon jelly.
22. Mousse—A cold pudding of milk, egg, gelatine and cream. Most famous is chocolate mousse.
23. Sweet Omelette
(a) Blanc de Neige—A poached preparation of egg made with white of an egg beaten to stiff point with icing sugar, vanilla flavour, a pinch of salt dropped into hot sweetened
milk to poach; served with custard sauce.
(b) Omelette au Rhum—Plain Sweetened Omelette, dredged with icing sugar and flamed with rum.
24. Triffles—As the word, so is the meaning from nothing. It is made from leftover cakes, fruits, syrups mixed with custard. Sherry Triffle is most famous because of sherry in the mixture, which is decorated and served in champagne glass.
25. Waffles (Gaufre)—A sweet batter cooked in waffle iron filled with fruits, maple syrup, fudge, chocolate and icrecream. Batter contains flour, milk, eggs and baking powder.
26. Yoghurts—Yoghurt is curdled milk with use of lacotobacillus appropriately flavoured, coloured and sweetened and sometimes whipped.
27. Postillage or Gum paste. Refers to sugar work mixed with gum given fancy shapes and designs either by hand or piping, coloured, flavoured and painted with edible concentrates of gelatine. It is used for decorating cakes,
28. nougatine-wholly edible sugar paste with chopped almonds.
29. Marzipzzn- Almond paste preparations made thick by heating with rose water. It is mixed with egg white flavoured with brandy, rum, coloured, given shapes of vegetables and fruits, It is very expensive.
30. Friandises—As sorted petit four served at the end of meal with coffee, glazed candied fruits, marzipans, small pastries,
31. Chausson—Small puff pastry filled with fruit puree, jam, marmlade or curd, folded over egg washed, sprinkled with sugar and baked.
32.Icecreams—Napoleon was fond of icecream. Hence ice was brought from Alps to set the icecream. Italians were pioneers in icecream making. Icecreams are basically of two types creamy and syrupy. The third variety could be mixture of both. Cream ice is from custard mix like milk, egg white, egg yolk, gelatine, pulp of fruits, syrups. However technology has changed the recipe replacing eggs and gelatine with chemical emulsifkrs, stablisers and homogenisers. "Various proteins isolated from soyabeans like lecithin soya amylase, and many other patented materials Alginate, GMS (glycerol mono stearate) are available for bringing smoothness body and volume.
i) some famous icecreams are parfait glace or rich decorated bricksof vanilla, chocolate, coffee, pistachio, and strawberryare more famous beside butter scotc, mango, lychee, maple, black currant, saffron, pista, praline, almond, chocochips, are some more popular varieties. often these bricks are prepared in confectionary with rich paste called bombe pate with eggs and all natural ingredients.They are further decorated with meringues, marzipan, dry fruits piped in decorated with cream, jam and other pastes, served with Icecream wafer or chat de langue.
ii) The other versions of Icecream are Sundae. They are American combinations of three scoops. Some of combinations are with fruits and biscuits e.g. banana split, chocolate fudge, pineapple fudge.
iii)Tutti Fruiti—Combination of dry fruits, glazed fruits and coloured icecream.
iv) Cassata—Multilayer icecream with cake, jam and fruits.
v) softie-is a special soft icecream piled up in cones or served in cups.
vi) Fried Icecream—Deep frozen thick cubes or balls of icecream coated with sweetened cornflour batter, quickly fried in super heated fat to golden brown colour and served with hot chocolate sauce
vii) bombes. are rich icecreams with extra fat set in used bombe shells of copper coated.they are cut into four pieces exposing the inner portion with plenty of dry fruits stuffed inside.


english cheese
1. Cheshire Cheese - It is made from cow's milk. It is cylindrical full cream hard pressed
cheese, texture being loose and flaky, flavour mild or mellow available in white, red or blue colour. It is generally coloured with annato or carrot juice.
2. Cheddar: It is made of cow's milk. It is cylindrical in shape. It has hard texture being porous, flavour being full and nutty but not strong, may be coloured with carrot juice,
3. Stilton: It is made from rich milk and cream. It is blue veined, semi-hard, mould ripened seasonal cheese because it is innoculated with a mould the Penicillium glaucum, which is responsible for blue veining.
4. Caerphily: originally a welsh, semi hard cheese popular amongst the miners of wales and south of england. it has mild flavour, creamy white colour. it ripens within a fortnight.
5. Derby: it is hard pressed cheese, cylindrical in shape matured for 6 months. it has pale honey colour.
6. Gloucester and Double Gloucester: ft is a hard cheese made from cow's milk. It is
mixed with some beer during 1st  month of maturation, which gives it pale vermilion colour. It is matured for atleast 6 months.
7.  Lancashire: it is semi-hard cheese, flattish in shape having mild flavour, but somewhat
acidic when 2-3 months old but becomes mellow with age.
8.  Leicestershire: It is hard pressed cheese with flaky texture, rosette colour. It is coloured by addition of annato.

french cheese
France has a great variety of cheeses. This is due to the fact that there are so many different climatic conditions in France, also different kinds of soils and breeds of cows, other milk givers like goat and ewe etc.

1  Fromage Blanc: This is a cream cheese from unskimmed sour milk. It's eaten with salt s pepper. It is eaten with cream poured over it, then castor sugar is passed.
2.  Demi Sel: is a small, paper wrapped fresh cream cheese, about 4oz in weight. its salt content must be 2 %, butter fat content not less than 40% of its weight as per official regulations.
3. petit suisse: it is a paper wrapped, unsalted, cylindrical, fresh cream cheese weighing approximately 60 grams. it is made of whole milk to which fresh cream is added. its butter fat content should be 60% of its total weight.
4. saint marcellin: it is named after the village where it is made. it is a soft cream cheese with 50% fat content made from both goat's and cow's milk.

soft cheese
1. Brie: it is named after province of 'la brie', immediately to east of paris, along the lower valley of the marne. its shape is circular, its thickness varies from 3/4 inch to an inch. it is soft paste cheese mae from renneted cow's milk, not heated, not pressed, slightly salted without any rind but a reddish brown mouldy crust with white tracing.
2. camembert: it is the name of one of the most universally known cheeses in the world. it is soft paste, round cheese, made of cow's milk, neither skinned, nor heated, not pressed but fermented after it has been inoculated with pencillium candium a white mould.
3. pont l' eveque: it is a soft cheese, made out of cow's milk unskinned and the milk of one milking only, renneted to ferment by mould called monilia candida which imparts distinct flavour to this cheese.
4. neufchatel: it is a soft, whole milk cheese, lightly pressed and lightly salted, packed in tin mould of different shapes, allowed to stay in cellars for months till it gets covered with a white, valvey mould. it weighs about 4oz. although it is eaten when ripened in europe, in america it is eaten fresh.

semi hard cheese
1. Port du Salut: is a semi-hard cheese made from cow's milk. it was made by monks of the Abbey at Entrammes.
2. Munster: It is the national cheese of Alsace. It is made of cows whole milk and is a semi hard cheese with minimum 45% fat content. It is round having 4 1/2 inch-7 inch diameter, 1 1/4 inch to 2 inch height and weighs 10 oz to 2 lb.
3. Gerome: It is a cylindrical, softish fermented whole milk cheese with a fat content of 40% of its total weight, usually ripened in cellars for about 4 months. It is sometimes flavoured with fennel, aniseeds or cumin seeds. It has strong flavour. The rind is brick red, the yellow.
4. Saint Nectaire: It is a semi hard cheese made from cow's milk having a shape of flat, cylinder, matured on rye straw mats in deep cellars which are always cool and damp. the cheese acquires a colourful mouldy crust of white, yellow and red in those cellars.

blueveined or mould innoculated cheese
1. Roquefort is made from ewe's milk and it is the only ewe's milk cheese that has won international recognition. It is made from unskimmed morning and evening milk mixed and renneted with rennet from lamb's stomach which is added to milk when temperature is raised to 90°F. To the coagulated milk a layer of mouldy breadcrumb having culture of Penicillin glaucum is put. After salting and pressing it is matured in the caves of Roquefort where temperature is about 46°F and humidity high due to existence of an underground lake. It is impossible to make Roquefort anywhere else.
2. Epoisses: is one of the best blue veined cheese of cote d' or (Burgundy). It is whole milk mould innoculated soft cheese in a shape of a cylinder with flattened end about 5 inch across and 3 inches thick. It is eaten fresh during summer. It is flavoured with black pepper, clove or fennel seeds.

italian cheese
1. gorgonzola: gorgonzola is the name of village near milan. it is an italian blue veined cheese, made in cylindrical shape or round shape weighing about 8 kg, the cheese has a strong rich taste and is good for desserts, snacks and salad dressing.
2. Mozzarella: An Italian unripened, curd cheese originally made from buffalo's milk, but now obtained exclusively from cow's milk made in various shapes such as round and slabs. It is widely used as cooking cheese for pizza, lasagne and toasted sandwiches.
3. Parmesan: One of the Italy's best known cheeses, is one of the granular types. It is made from cow's milk made in a large wheel and matured for 2-3 years.
4. Pecorino: Pecorino is a generic name for all those cheeses which are made from ewe's milk. It is hard cheese eaten fresh or grated when fully matured, used in many pasta style dishes.
5. Fontina: A cow's milk cheese from Italy, has a delicate nutty, slightly smoky taste and is used for making Fonduta (an Italian version of Swiss Fondue). It is made in flat wheel shapes.
6. Ricotta: An Italian fresh, unripened cheese made from the whey of cow's milk. It is smooth and mild tasting, used in a variety of sweets and savoury dishes, including pizzas. It is packed in various shapes and sizes.

swiss cheese
1. Emmentaler/Emmenthal: The world's famous Swiss cheese made from cow's milk has a sweet, nutty taste. It is available in wheel shape. Its weight is between 154-176 lb. Diameter is 27 inches to 31 inches and height 5 inches to 10 inches. It has holes or eyes which vary in size between a cherry and walnut. The rind is dry and hard from golden yellow to brown in
2. Gruyere; This is a famous cow's milk cheese from Switzerland. Its weight is between 44 lb I to 110 lb, diameter between 16 inches-25 inches and height between 3 1/2 inches and 5  inches. It has holes or eyes which vary in size between a pea and hazelnut.
3. Raclette: A cow's milk cheese from Switzerland with a mild, nutty taste made in wheel
4. Sbrinz: A swiss hard cheese made from cow's milk made into wheel shape. The eyes are
absent or are only the size of a pinhead.

german cheese
Bavarian Blue; A double cream soft textured, blue veined cheese from West germany made from cow's milk has a creamy texture, spreads well on sandwiches. It is made in small wheel shapes.

belgium cheese
Limburger: it is a ripened cheese made from cow's milk. it is rectngular in shape made from sweet milk, ripened for 1-2 months having strong smell. It is a native of Belgium. Now it is national cheese of USA.

dutch cheese(netherland)
1. Gouda: A famous Dutch cheese made from cow's milk. It is flat, cylindrical cheese having smooth and compact rind. It is straw yellow in colour. It has small irregularly shaped or round holes evenly distributed.
2. Edam: It is a famous Dutch cheese made from cow's milk spherical in shape with flattened top and base coated with red wax. The paste is yellow or light orange. It is known as Dutch red Ball in England.
3. Leyden/Leiden: A Dutch semihard cheese covered with a dark yellow rind, then with red wax, made from whole or skimmed cow's milk flavoured with caraway or cumin seeds. It is
served as a snack.

danish cheese
1. Danish Blue: A Danish cheese made from homogenised cow's milk, soft textured and creamy with a fairly strong taste and makes a good dessert cheese. It is made in wheel
2. Mycella: A Danish cheese made from cow's milk. It has blue green veins. It is mould
Mycelium which produces the veins. It is available in cylindrical shape.
3.Blue castello: A Danish blue cheese double cream soft textured cheese made from cow's milk.

norwegian cheese(norway)
1. Jarlsberg: A Norwegian cheese ranging from white to light yellow with large holes scattered throughout. It is made from cow's milk and has a firm buttery interior and a mild nutty taste. It is covered with a thick rind, then with a yellow wax. It is made in wheel shape.
2. Gjetost: A Norwegian whey cheese can be made from cow's milk or goat's milk. It is
made in cubes or rectangular block. It has fudge like taste.

spanish cheeses(spain)
1. Manchego: It is a Spanish semihard cheese made from ewe's milk, has a creamy firmish
textured interior, which sometimes has holes. It has strong taste.
2. Cabrales: It is made from goat's milk made in cylindrical shape, has a strong pronounced
3. Roncal: It is a hard smoked cheese made from cow's milk It is cylindrical in shape, yellow in colour having small eyes and sharp flavour.

greek cheese
Feta: A greek cheese made from ewe's milk, has a sharp, salty taste used in savoury stuffings and salads.

american cheese
1. Brick; It is a sweet curd, semi-soft cow's milk cheese with a mild, rather pungent and sweet flavour It has irregular shaped eyes (holes).
2. Colby: A popular American cheddar type cheese, a washed curd cheese having granular
texture, high moisture content.
3. Monterey Jack: An American semihard cheese from California made from cow's milk
has a bland taste, a smooth and open texture. It is made in block shapes or large,wheels.

scottish cheese
1. Caboc: A Scottish double cream soft cheese made from cow's milk and rolled in oatmc
has a sweet flavour. It is made in cylindrical shape.
2. Dunlop: A Scottish semihard cheese made from cow's milk, is a cheddar type of
with rather bland and buttery taste.

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